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July 1995, Issue no. 19
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

I. IPM NEWS / APPLICATIONS international IPM news, and application of IPM techniques and programs. Nepalese Communities Target Bacterial Wilt Implementation of recognized management practices for bacterial wilt may help Nepalese farmers avoid the current threat of disease-caused losses to their critically important potato crops. Potato, a principal household food in the mid and high hills of Nepal, is threatened by widespread infestation of bacterial wilt (BW), late blight, and other diseases. Researchers at the Lumle Agricultural Research Center in Western Nepal have found that the prevalent BW strain can be managedeven eliminatedif recommended management practices are fully adopted and used by entire communities. The ease of transmitting BW from one field to another via tools, boots, and even rainwater means that just a single non-practitioner in a community can cause reinfection of other fields. Community participation is crucial to gaining control of BW. The BW control program in Nepal hinges on establishing a village-based Cropping Systems Improvement Committee to spearhead the community approach.

The specific steps to manage BW include:

obtaining disease-free seed for all households that grow potatoes;

eliminating all infected plant materials;

rotating crops: not planting any solanaceous crop for three years and substituting such introduced crops as maize, finger millet, upland rice, wheat, or barley;

rogueing any volunteer potatoes that appear during the rotation cycle (usually requires three rogueings per year);

educating farmers regarding both the symptoms of BW and the mechanisms for spreading it;

educating entire families about the problem (potatoes are often used as a marriage gift and thus can be transported from community to community, a possible source of field reinfection). The original community-based BW control effort began in two villages; one village has achieved several goals, whereas conditions in the other hampered carrying out the program (large number of households, scattered potato-growing areas, and other socio-economic factors). Two new villages have been brought into the effort which has also incorporated new ideas and modified some earlier approaches. excerpted from: FIELD NOTESUPWARD NEWSLETTER, 4(1).

Pests Threaten Somalian Agriculture The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has issued a call for assistance in combatting several pests threatening to devastate Somalia's fragile agriculture and trigger a resurgence of the horrendous famine that ravaged the east African nation several years ago. The most serious pests already found in Somalian crop areas are stalk borers, the African army worm, locusts, and the quelea. Earlier international assistance helped combat locusts in the country's northern zone. Now, FAO's representative in Somalia warned, "Farmers need pesticides, sprayers, and protective gear."

FAO has appealed for US.6 million from international donors to cover agricultural assistance costsincluding pest managementfor the first six months of 1995, but has received virtually nothing.

The famine specter looms, not only because of uncontrolled pests, but because of subnormal rainfall following last year's plentiful rains.

Researchers Launch New Pest Management Projects The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) has launched three new pest management projects in Southeast Asia in collaboration with a roster of national and local agencies and institutions. The programs begun in 1995 include:

Control of Giant Sensitive Plant (Mimosa pigra); Biological Control of Water Hyacinth; and, Management of Rodent Pests. M. pigra is one of Southeast Asia's most pernicious weeds and a pest that defies many biological, mechanical, and chemical control methods. It's water-borne seeds float downriver until reaching slow moving stretches where the seeds settle, root, and quickly colonize. ACIAR, with a background of M. pigra research in Thailand, will extend findings to Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam. Scientists plan to survey the weed's impact in the three countries, then supply biological control agents that have been found to be most effective for control. As the "world's worst" aquatic weed, waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solms) also was the subject of earlier investigation by an ACIAR project which eventually led to the rearing of two beetle species as control agents in Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. The new program will link the past work with current needs and enable the development of local insect rearing facilities in target countries. Additionally, two moth species will be studied and introduced as supplemental control agents.

Rodents cause untold damage to crops in Southeast Asia and Australia. Though total control is impractical, managing rodent populations to minimize crop loss is feasible. Scientists plan to investigate the biological processes that lead to fluctuations in rat populations and compare the efficacy and cost-benefit of using traditional and physical control methods. The project includes application of rodent modelling studies to develop a pilot strategy for rodent management in rice growing regions.

For more information, contact: ACIAR, GPO Box 1571, Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA. Phone: 06-248-8588. Fax: 06-257-3051.

adapted from: ACIAR Newsletter #27, November 1994- May 1995.

Dealing with Degree-Day Totals Insect development occurs whenever temperatures exceed developmental thresholds for each insect species. For species with threshold (base) temperatures of 50 deg. F. (very common), development occurs whenever temperatures exceed 50 deg F., even if the daily average temperature (max + min divided by 2) is lower. For example, if the daily maximum and minimum temperatures are 60 deg. F. and 40 deg. F., the average is 50 deg. F. Degreedays (D-D) for crops may be calculated by subtracting the threshold from the daily average temperature (in this case, 50 minus 50 = 0), but this approach does not work for calculating D-D for insect development. Instead, curve-fitting programs or adjusted approaches to averaging are used so that results appropriately indicate that development occurred during the warm portion of the day just described.

The simplest approach to calculating D-D when the daily high is greater than the developmental threshold and the daily low is less than the threshold, is to add the high and the threshold value (not the actual low), divide by 2, then subtract the threshold. Although this is not entirely accurate, it yields adequate results.

excerpted from: Material prepared by R. Weinzierl, in, ILLINOIS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE NEWS, 1(2), 5 April 1995.

Looking for IPM Improvement The proceedings from a 1994 workshop provide ideas for improving basic and applied IPM research, technology transfer, delivery of services, the pesticide registration process, and most importantly grower acceptance of IPM. The event, INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT: DEVELOPING A CALIFORNIA STRATEGY, 1994, brought together commodity groups, agricultural processors, agricultural chemical representatives, government agencies, researchers, and consumer and environmental organizations, under the sponsorship of the California Dept. of Food and Agriculture (CDFA), California Dept. of Pesticide Regulation, and the Univ. of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Project.

For more information, contact: Office of Pesticide Consultation, CDFA, 1220 N Street, Room 108, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA. Phone: 01-916-654-1765. Fax: 01-916-657-5017.

Ag Chemical Taxes to Fund Research A U.S. consumer-oriented group has proposed levying small fees on pesticide and fertilizer sales and using the resulting revenues to fund programs designed to promote "alternative farming practices." In a recent 33-page report, FUNDING SAFER FARMING: TAXING PESTICIDES AND FERTILIZERS, 1995, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) cites a recent opinion poll indicating that U.S. consumers would be willing to pay small increases in grocery bills to promote sustainable agriculture and reduce pesticide use. The Center thus recommends increasing state taxes on pesticides, using revenue to reduce pesticide use, and increasing federal funding support for research on alternative agriculture.

For more information, contact: CSPI, 1875 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20009, USA. Phone: 01-202-332-9110. Fax: 01-202-265-4954.

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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

II. IPM MEDLEY general information, publications of interest, and other information and resources related to IPM. Research and Rationale for Pest Management Why, asks a group of plant pathologists, "does the United States need more research on plant disease and pest management? Because the health and productivity of the crops and cropping systems upon which the people depend for their own consumption and for export cannot be sustained without continuing research and development." Writing in the periodical BIOSCIENCE, 45(5), 354-357, May 1995, R.J. Cook et al make the case for their opinion in a piece entitled "Research on Plant Disease and Pest Management is Essential to Sustainable Agriculture." Plant disease and pest management is needed, the group believes, to ensure that crops are healthy enough to yield to their full genetic potential ... within the constraints of such uncontrolled elements as climate, weather, and soils.

The process does not require total elimination or eradication of the pest or disease, but implies limiting negative effects to some threshold. The writers argue that, to maintain pest impacts to less than threshold level, reduced use of pesticides is a worthy goal, but dependant on continuedmore likely increasedinvestments in research for alternatives.

Biological control with natural enemies and beneficial plant-associated microorganisms "holds enormous but still largely unmet potential as a component of integrated plant disease and pest management," the authors note. Full implementation means deployment of vast numbers of biocontrol agents.

Dr. Cook and colleagues conclude that, "the new tools of biotechnology combined with traditional breeding; release of natural enemies and beneficial plant-associated microorganisms; and [selected] cultural practices ..... offer virtually unlimited potential for ..... providing the practical disease and pest management needed to meet the goal of sustainable agriculture for the future.

Biocontrol of Weeds A fascinating account of how an imported plant became a highly noxious weed that was eventually controlled by a natural predator introduces "Classical Biological Control of Weeds," a summary by E.S. Delfosse, director of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's (USDA) National Biological Control Institute (NBCI), published in the May 1995 issue of MIDWEST BIOLOGICAL CONTROL NEWS. Dr. Delfosse offers an overview of weed biocontrol and then lists recent developments (in the U.S.) that "should result in increased support for biological weed control programs in coming years," such as USDA's 1992 announcement of a "Biological Control Philosophy" stating support for biocontrol, and the formation of the NBCI. Other governmental agencies also have moved toward biocontrol as a key strategy in IPM program development.

In the U.S., "biological weed control has been practiced for over 100 years, but is under utilized," Delfosse points out. However, he suggests that the emergence of IPM in recent decades and a renewed interest in softer, less invasive techniques could lead to expanded biological control of more weed species.

excerpted from: MIDWEST BIOLOGICAL CONTROL NEWS, II(5), May 1995.

What to do with Old Pesticides Old, outdated pesticides can pose a problem for growers. In the U.S. state of Nebraska, the state's Dept. of Agriculture, with support through a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency grant, instituted a "pesticide pick-up" program that appears to have accomplished its goal of removing outdated, adulterated, and even outlawed pesticides from many of the state's farms by allowing farmers to dispose of the materials without any charge or penalty. Kenmore Given Major Award Entomologist P.E. Kenmore, a strong proponent of IPM and a highly effective manager of FAO's IPM effort in various Asian nations, has been singularly honored with award of a MacArthur Fellowship. The 5-year, no-strings-attached award was presented in recognition of Dr. Kenmore's "accomplishments in integrated pest management which demonstrate your originality, creativity, capacity for self-direction, and ability to make a contribution to our lives." excerpted from: MAPPS NEWSLETTER, 18(2), December 1994.

Weed Biocontrol Agents in B.C. The British Columbia (CANADA) Ministry of Agriculture has assembled BIOLOGICAL WEED CONTROL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, a list of biocontrol agents that have been released to help control specific weed species. For the noxious weed Cirsium arvense (canada thistle), the list is:

Weed/Bioagent Order Released Attack Site

Altica carduorum Coleoptera 1964 leaf Ceutorynchus litura Coleoptera 1975 shoots, crown Urophora carduii Diptera 1974 stem Larinus planus Coleoptera ? seedhead For more information, contact: R. Cranston, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture: rcranston@galaxy.gov.bc.


The IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention a publication provided it has a connection to IPM. To assure coverage, please send a review copy of the publication, with background information where to obtain copies, data about the author(s), costs, and any other particulars or materialsto: IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA After review, materials will be cataloged into the Center's extensive international IPM and crop protection literature collection (which the worldwide IPM/crop protection community is welcome to use) or returned if so requested.

New Pest Management Titles The American Phytopathological Society (APS) has issued a series of new, full color publications in 1995, including:

COMPENDIUM OF STONE FRUIT DISEASES, J.M. Ogawa, et al, disease identification and management procedures for the most common, high value stone fruit crops; 128 pages, 140 color photos; a corresponding 35mm slide set is available.

INSECT PESTS OF SMALL GRAINS, W.L. Morrill, a guide for diagnosing pest symptoms and for identifying pest insects commonly associated with grain crops (in N. America); 145 pages, 94 color photos.

PEANUT HEALTH MANAGEMENT, H.A. Melouk and F.M. Stokes, the latest addition to the interdisciplinary Plant Health Management series, covering steps for holistic crop production; 130 pages, 113 color photos.

COMPENDIUM OF BLUEBERRY AND CRANBERRY DISEASES, F.L. Caruso and D.C. Ramsdell, a system for comparing disease symptoms with the volume's 193 color photos; 120 pages; a corresponding 35mm slide set is available. For information about the above titles, others publications, slide sets, and a videodisc for over 9,000 plant disease images, contact: APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. Phone: 01-612-454-7250, or 1-800-328-7560 (for U.S. and most of Canada, only). Fax: 01-612-454-0766. Crop Production Newsletter A new electronic communication, the ILLINOIS FRUIT AND VEGETABLE NEWSLETTER, offers a span of useful information that, while aimed at growers in a mid-western U.S. state, is of much broader geographical interest. Sections of the 5 April 1995 issue, for instance, concerned strategies for dealing with the effect of temperature fluctuations on pest infestations, and a warning to watch for seed- and seedling-borne diseases, as well as preventative action. The Newsletter suggests methods for controlling seed and transplant borne diseases that include purchasing seeds or transplants from a reputable source, and if available, purchasing planting stock which has been certified as disease free. For more information, contact: Office of Agricultural Entomology, Univ. of Illinois, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, USA, or, eastburnd@idea.ag.uiuc.edu.

African Pesticides Conference A summary of the reports and papers presented at a 1994 conference on "Pesticides and Sustainable Agriculture in Africa," has been published as PESTICIDES ET AGRICULTURE DURABLE EN AFRIQUE, 1994. The 59-page work, in French, edited by A. Thiam and A. Schonfield, is available from: A. Thiam, ENDA/PRONAT, BP 3370, Dakar, Senegal. Phone: 221-225 565. Fax: 221-222-695. E-mail: abou_thiam@endadak.gn.apc.org. New IPM Newsletter The summer 1995 issue of IPM FLORIDA is the first edition of a 4-page, hard copy newsletter published by the Florida Cooperative Extension Service, and focuses primarily on insect management. The periodical offers a variety of short articles including research on use of the Tedders trap for insects. For more information, contact: IPM FLORIDA, L. Collins, IFAS Educational Media and Services, Bldg. 116, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0810, USA. Phone: 01-904-392-2411. Fax: 01-904-392-7902. Plants, Pests, and IPM PLANT & PEST ADVISORY, from Cooperative Extension Service, Rutgers Univ.-USDA, PO Box 231, Cook College, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-0231, USA, is a periodical hard copy newsletter published in several editions covering vegetable crops, field crops, cranberry, and landscape, nursery & turf. Most issues contain IPM or related information presented in a concise, attractive format. For more information, contact the editor, C. Rovins, phone: 01-908-932-9395. IPM for Stored Products Revised in 1995, STORED PRODUCT MANAGEMENT devotes a full chapter to IPM and treats both insect and vertebrate pests. The text presents applicable information for a range of tactics to achieve effective pest management. Circular E-912, 242 pages, softbound. For more information, contact: Publications Coordinator, 117 Public Information Bldg., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK 74078. E-mail: flyingc@vms.ucc.okstate.edu. Phone: 01-405-744-3686. Fax: 01-405-744-5739.

Publications Briefs A 1995 publication edited by T. Saito et al summarizes the May 1995 final report meeting of the joint Japanese-Thai research projects on MANAGEMENT OF BROWN PLANTHOPPER AND RESISTANCE OF DIAMONDBACK MOTH. Hardbound, 161 pages, Nagoya Univ. Cooperation Press, Nagoya, JAPAN. E.J. Brill, Netherlands, has published: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 22ND INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF NEMATOLOGISTS. The event was held in Ghent, BELGIUM, during August 1994. The publisher's address is: PO Box 9000, 2300 Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS.

P.A. Goy and J.H. Duesing wrote, "From Pots to Plots: Genetically Modified Plants on Trial," page 454, in the May 1995 issue of BIO/TECHNOLOGY, 13(5).

The British Crop Protection Council and Royal Society of Chemistry announce the 10th edition of THE PESTICIDE MANUAL, edited by C. Tomlin, and the 2nd edition of WORLD DIRECTORY OF PESTICIDE CONTROL ORGANISATIONS, edited by G. Ekstrom. Contact: BCPC Sales, Bear Farm, Binfield, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 5QE, U.K. Phone: 44-0-1734-342-727.

RESOURCES NEUROPTERA DISCUSSION GROUP P. McEwen at the Univ. of Cardiff (U.K.) operates an electronic discussion group dedicated to involvement with all aspects of Neuroptera. There is an open invitation to all who are interested to join in the discussion and information exchange. To subscribe to this list, send an e-mail message to: MAJORDOMO@CARDIFF.ac.uk, with the subject line blank, and "Subscribe Neuroptera-L" as the message.

FREE WEED CD OFFERED Research scientists in the U.S. have developed an extensive database for the noxious weed Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) and made it available on a CD (compact disc). The CD runs under Microsoft Windows 3.X. and contains >400 papers, from extension bulletins to scientific papers. Control information is weighted to biological control, but extensive chemical and cultural control information is also included. There are some 100 photographs, both for viewing and as files that can be downloaded into a presentation. For more information, contact: N.R. Spencer, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, PO Box 1109, Sidney, MT 59270, USA. Phone: 01-406-482-2020. E-mail: spencer@ril.usda.montana.edu. Fax: 01-406-482-5038. PESTICIDE USE DATABASE The U.S. National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy (NCFAP) offers a "comprehensive database of pesticide use in agricultural production" throughout the U.S. The Center also has published other reports related to the same topic. For a free descriptive brochure, contact: NCFAP, 1616 P Street, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036, USA. Phone: 01-202-328-5048. PLANT RESISTANCE TO PESTS D. Schenck-Hamlin has initiated an electronic bulletin board devoted to the exchange of information on meetings, conferences, and germplasm accessions relating to plant resistance to arthropods and plant pathogens. To subscribe to this bulletin board, send an e-mail message to: listserv@ksuvm.ksu.edu, with the subject line blank, and "SUB PRP firstname lastname" as the message. Use the e-mail address PRP@KSUVM.KSU.EDU for sending messages to the entire group.

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT IPM FOR RODENT CONTROL A U.S. firm produces tamper-proof bait stations said to be part of an IPM approach to rodent control. The stations are used in conjunction with sanitationgetting rid of debris and rodent harborageand sealing off structures to keep rodents from entering. For more information, contact: Bell Laboratories, Inc., 3699 Kinsman Blvd., Madison, WI 53704, USA.

POSITIONS IPM SPECIALIST The West Virginia Univ. Extension Service is recruiting for an Extension SpecialistIPM Program to work under the direction of the state's integrated pest management coordinator and provide leadership for planning, implementing, evaluating, and reporting for the West Virginia state IPM program. Requirements include an MS degree in any of several related disciplines. For an official position announc ment, or other particulars, contact: WVU Extension Service, PO Box 6031, Morgantown, WV 26506-6031, USA. Phone: 01-304-293-5691. Fax: 01-304-293-7163.
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

III. FORUM / EDITORIAL viewpoints, opinions, and open discussion of IPM issues. IPM is spreading from agriculture to institutional service to commercial pest control, but not without some confusion along the way. PEST CONTROL TECHNOLOGY, a U.S. commercial pest control periodical, acidly comments, "it is a myth that merely using IPM buzzwords and materials that are promoted as 'environmentally friendly' will help the [pest control] customer or the industry." PCT calls the practice of talking the talk without walking the walk "ersatz IPM," and suggests that it will cause the industry "to lose credibility."

The fundamental procedures that need to be followed to implement IPM in commercial pest control, according to PCT, are: (1) education of all players; (2) physical controls (modifying habitat, structural intervention); (3) sanitation and housekeeping; and, (4) limited use of least-toxic pesticides when needed.

excerpted from: PEST CONTROL TECHNOLOGY, 23(4), April 1995.

" Quotes " J.P. Tette, Director, IPM Program, State of New York, USA on the future of IPM in his state: "I foresee breakthroughs in the discovery of more environ- mentally friendly pesticides and many new forms of biological controls, in addition to new manufactures of biological control agents. There will be significant numbers of new pest-resistant plants; scientists are understanding genetic resistance and are able to incorporate those factors more quickly into existing plant varieties." excerpted from: CORNELL FOCUS, 4(1), 1995. NO FEES, MINIMAL REQUIREMENTS As you're aware, there is NO subscription fee, cost, or restriction to use IPMnet beyond gaining access to the Internet or WWW. IPMnet's co-sponsors purposely adopted this approach to involve, and provide information and services to, as wide and varied an international constituency as feasible. Thus, the only two requests the co-sponsors make of readers/users are minimal. They are:

Participants in IPMnet are asked to complete a brief REGISTRATION FORM indicating professional interests and expertise; these profiles will help build an expertise database that is expected to be a useful component for network users in the future; and,

IPMnet users adopt a willingness to interact with others in the network.

If you haven't submitted a registration form as yet, please contact CICP to request either an electronic or hard copy version, and then complete and return it. Secondly, please share IPM-related information by either sending it to the IPMnet NEWS (send to or to the postal address at the end of this issue), or by sending it to for forwarding on to the IPMnet bulletin board(s).

IPMnet is the only global electronic network devoted to dissemination of IPM information. Please help support it by registering and by sharing information.

IV. RESEARCH ROUNDUP research and findings related to IPM. Tactics Against an Insect Cereal Pest The Russian wheat aphid [Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)] is an insect capable of causing serious damage to cereal crops. When RWA is found in a field, the question bound to arise is: what control measures, if any, are realistically called for? Research conducted at Oregon State Univ. (USA) documents that RWA populations can be controlled by application of pesticides, but often the population reduction does not correlate with crop yield increases. One answer for that result: the pesticides did not reduce populations below economic thresholds, or to a point where population rebound was impossible. In other cases, growers and field representatives have reported significant yield increases from chemical control of RWA, possibly because the pest population in these instances was reduced to minimum levels.

As part of ongoing research for management of this pest, OSU scientists have developed a table of "Economic Thresholds for the Russian Wheat Aphid" and a series of seven recommendations including scouting, monitoring, weather assessment, threshold evaluation, and improved application techniques. For more information, contact: Crop and Soil Science Extension, 107 Crop Science Building, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331-3002, USA.

excerpted from: CROP AND SOIL NEWS/NOTES, 9(5), May 1995.

The December 1994 issue of the INDIAN JRNL. OF AGRON., 39(4), contains several papers and short communications related to pest management including:

"Weed Management in Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cropping System," Nandal, D.P., and C.M. Singh, 517-521;

"Integrated Weed Control in Direct-seeded Upland Rice (Oryza sativa)," Dutta, R., and A.K. Gogoi, 639-640; and,

"Integrated Weed Management in Soybean (Glycine max)," Satao, R.N., and S.T. Chandurkar, 676-677.

Noted Research Papers "Bean Leaf Beetle Injury to Seedling Soybean: Consumption, Effects of Leaf Expansion, and Economic Injury Levels," Hunt, T.E., et al. AGRON. JRNL., 87(2), 183-188, March- April 1995. "Biological Control of the Colorado Potato Beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Quebec by Augmentative Releases of the Two-spotted Stinkbug Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomzdae)," Cloutier, C., and F. Baudin. CAN. ENTOMOLOGIST, 127(2), 195-212, March-April 1995.

"Effects of Pheromone Trap Design and Placement on Capture of Male Cydia caryana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae) in Alabama Pecan Orchards and the Relationship of Trap Captures to Fruit Infestation," McVay, J.R., et al. JRNL. OF ENTOMOL. SCI., 30(2), 165-175, April 1995.

"Genetically Engineered Insect Virus Pesticides: Present and Future," Miller, L.K. JRNL. OF INVERT. PATH., 65(3), 211-216, May 1995.

"Historical Damages to White Rats on Exposure to an Acute Dose of Carbaryl," Noran, A.M., and M.Z.H. Haniza. MALAYSIAN APPL. BIOL., 22(2), 153-161, 1994.

"Insect Pest Management in Peanut: A Cropping System Approach," Kennedy, F.J.S., et al. TROP. AGRIC., 71(2), 116-119, April 1994.

"Leucaena Psyllid, Heteropsylla cubana (Homoptera: Psyllidae), in Asia," Showler, A.T. AM. ENTOMOL., 41(1), 49-54, Spring 1995.

"Management of Rodents in Coconut Plantations," Sadakathulla, S., and A. Abdul. THE PLANTER, 70, 395-399, 1994.

"Pest Management Systems for Eggplant Arthropods: A Plan to Control Pest Resurgence Resulting from the Destruction of Natural Enemies," Nemoto, H. JAPAN AG. RESCH. QTRLY., 29(1), 25-29, 1995. et al. AGRIC. SYST., 48(2), 193-222, 1995.

"Tillage, Nitrogen Timing, and Planting Date Effects on Western Corn Rootworm Injury to Corn," Roth, G.W., et al. AGRON. JRNL., 87(2), 189-192, March-April 1995.

"Using Degree-days Model to Determine the Optimum Spray Timing for the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (L)(Lep, Olethreutidae)," Ahmad, T.R., et al. JRNL. OF APPL. ENTO., 119(2), 143-144, March 1995.

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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

V. CALENDAR future events: meetings, seminars, conferences, and training courses that relate to global IPM. NOTE: sponsors and organizers are cordially encouraged to send information about future events to:

IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA. Fax: 01-503-373-3080 E-mail: deutscha@bcc.orst.edu # = new entry since the last issue of IPMnet NEWS. {+} = additional information. or changes.

See also Meetings and Conferences listed in the WWW Virtual Library for Agriculture.

1995 28 August-2 September 9th SYMPOSIUM OF IOBC/WPRS ON INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION IN ORCHARDS/3rd SYMPOSIUM OF ISHS ON INTEGRATED FRUIT PRODUCTION, Cedzyna (near Kielce), POLAND. Contact: R.W. Olszak, Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Pomologiczna 18, PL 96-100 Skierniewice, P.O. Box 105, POLAND. Phone: 48-40-2021. Fax: 48-40-3238. Conference language: English. 11-14 September PLANT PROTECTION IN EUROPEAN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS THEORY AND PRACTICE, Edinburgh, U.K. Contact: R.G. McKinley, SAC, West Mains Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, U.K. Phone: 44-0-131-667-1041.

3-6 October 4TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ADJUVANTS FOR AGROCHEMICALS, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA. Contact: CAWSS, PO Box 1108, Frankston, VIC 3199, AUSTRALIA. Phone: 61-3787-3804. Fax: 61-3785-2007.

# 14-18 October Joint meeting, ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA and the ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, Victoria Conference Centre, Victoria, BC, CANADA. Contact: T. Shore, Phone: 01-604-363-0666. Fax: 01-604-363-0775. E-mail: TShore@A1.PFC.Forestry.ca.

6-10 November XVIII CONGRESO NACIONAL DE CONTROL BIOLOGICO, and I CONGRESO AMERICANO DE CONTROL BIOLOGICO, VI CURSO DE CONTROL BIOLOGICO, ECOSUR, Tapachula, Chiapas, MEXICO. Contact: P.L. Fernandez, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Apartado Postal No. 36, 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. Phone: 52-962-544-77. Fax: 52-962-608-15.

6-25 November, 3RD COURSE ON MICROBIAL INSECT CONTROL, promoted by CENARGEN/EMBRAPA, Brasilia, BRAZIL. Course objective: to treat the importance of entomopathogens in biocontrol of pest insects and vectors of diseases. The course will be offered to Argentinean, Brazilian, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan professionals. Contact: mfraga@cenargen.embrapa.br or, cabral@cenargen.embrapa.br.

20-23 November BRIGHTON CONFERENCE, WEEDS 1995, Brighton, U.K. The premier international event dealing with weed control in crop protection. Contact: CAS Ltd./BCPC, 4 Cavendish Square, London W1M 0BX, U.K. Phone: 44-0-1714-900-900. Fax: 44-0-1716-293-233.

# 21-29 November MODERN CROP PROTECTION: DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES, Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Contact: J.H. de Ru, International Training Center, Wageningen Agric. Univ., PO Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS.

5-8 December 3RD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE MANAGEMENT OF DIAMONDBACK MOTH AND OTHER CRUCIFER PESTS, AVRDC, TAIWAN/ ROC. Contact: N.S. Talekar, AVRDC, PO Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan 741, TAIWAN/ROC. Phone: 886-6-583-7801. Fax: 886-6-583-0009.

17-21 December ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

1996 21-26 January 9th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS. Contact: J.H. Hoffmann, Zoology Dept., Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, SOUTH AFRICA. Fax: 27-21-650-3726. E-mail: hoff@botany.vct.ac.za. 6-9 February WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA, annual meeting, Marriot and Omni Hotels, Norfolk, VA, USA. Contact: WSSA, 1508 W. University Ave., Champaign, IL 61821, USA.

24-26 April INTERNATIONAL PESTICIDES CONFERENCE: CROP PROTECTION TOWARDS 2000, KL Hilton International, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Co-organized by the Malaysian Agricultural Chemicals Assn., and the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products. Sessions will cover a wide range of topics, including IPM. Contact: MACA Secretariat, Ticket Serahan, Tingkap No. 43, Damansara Jaya, 47409 Petaling Jaya, MALAYSIA. Phone: 60-3-704-8968. Fax: 60-3-704-8964.

# 9-14 June 5TH SYMPOSIUM OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL (SICONBIOL), Rafain Palace Hotel, Foz do Iguacu (Iguazu Falls), Parana, BRAZIL. Contact: F. Moscardi, President-5th SICONBIOL, EMBRAPA - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Cx. Postal 1061, CEP 86001-970, Londrina, PR, BRAZIL. E-mail: moscardi@cnpso1.embrapa.anpr.br.

25-28 June INTERNATIONAL WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY, Copenhagen, DENMARK. Two concurrent sessions each day beginning with a keynote address on the session theme. Contact: ICS, PO Box 41, DK-2900 Hellerup, DENMARK; or IWSS, c/o IPPC, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA. Phone: 01-503-737-3541. Fax: 01-503-737-3080. E-mail: larsons@bcc.orst.edu.

2-5 July 3RD SYMPOSIUM, EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF ACAROLOGISTS, Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS. Theme: "Ecology and Evolution in the Acari." Emphasis will be given to phylogeny, evolutionary ecology, and population dynamics. Contact: T. Korzilius, Population Biology, Univ. of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS. Fax: 31-20-525-7754. Phone: 31-20-525-7736. E-mail: korzilius@bio.uva.nl.

8-10 July INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INSECT PESTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, U.K. Contact: W. Robinson, Urban Pest Control Resch. Center., Dept. of Entomology, VPI&SU, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319, USA.

27-31 July AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC. ANNUAL MEETING, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Contact: APS, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. Phone: 01-612-454-7250. Fax: 01-612-454-0766.

25-31 August XX INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ENTOMOLOGY, Palazzo dei Congressi, Florence, ITALY. Science program includes 26 sections. Contact: O.I.C., Via A. La Marmora 24, 50121 Florence, ITALY. Fax: 39-55-500-1912. Phone: 39-55-500-0631.

30 September-3 October 11TH AUSTRALIAN WEEDS CONFERENCE, Melbourne Univ., Melbourne, AUSTRALIA. Contact: Weed Sci. Soc. of Victoria, PO Box 987, Frankston, VIC 3199, AUSTRALIA.

no date SIXTH INTERNATIONAL PARASITIC WEED SYMPOSIUM, Cordoba, SPAIN. Contact: M.T. Moreno, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario, Apartado 4240, 14080 Cordoba, SPAIN. Fax: 34-57-202721.

IPMnet Sponsors IPMnet, a Global IPM Information Service, was conceived by the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP) and developed and implemented with guidance and support from the National Biological Impact Assessment Program (NBIAP) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Consortium, 13 U.S. educational/research institutions with strong interests in research, development, and productive application of rational crop protection and pest management, has been an international presence for over 15 years. Current members are: Univ. of California, Cornell Univ., Univ. of Florida, Univ. of Hawaii, Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Miami, Univ. of Minnesota, North Carolina State Univ., Oregon State Univ., Univ. of Puerto Rico, Purdue Univ., Texas A&M Univ., and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

M. Kogan (Oregon State Univ.) chairs CICP's Board of Directors. R. Ford (Univ. of Illinois) is vice chairman, and G.A. Schaefers (Cornell Univ.) serves as acting executive director. The Consortium maintains a business office at:

CICP, Cornell Univ., NYSAES, Geneva, NY 14456-0462, USA. E-mail: cicp@cornell.edu. Phone: 01-315-787-2252.

IPMnet co-sponsor NBIAP was established to facilitate the applications of biotechnology in agriculture and the environment, and is funded by direct U.S. Congressional appropriation. The program operates a national communications system for biotechnology in the U.S. and is cooperating, through these resources, to assist CICP in globally extending IPM information. D.R. MacKenzie (USDA-CSRS) is NBIAP director.

The two IPMnet servers are administered by R.E. Stinner (North Carolina State Univ.) and D.M. King (Virginia Tech).

The IPMnet NEWS .....is co-sponsored by the CICP and NBIAP/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Mention of specific products, processes, institutions, organizations, or individuals in the IPMnet NEWS does not imply support nor criticism by CICP, NBIAP, nor any individual associated with either organization. Information in IPMnet NEWS may be re printed or quoted providing the IPMnet NEWS is identified as the source.

A.E. Deutsch, IPMnet NEWS Coordinator/Editor.

IPMnet NEWS Advisory Committe

J.D. Harper, chair - jharper@ent.ncsu.edu D. Dickson - dwd@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu A. Alvarez - alvarez@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu M. Kogan, ex-officio - koganm@bcc.orst.edu G. Schaefers, ex-officio - george_schaefers@cornell.

Contributions to the IPMnet NEWS ..... are encouraged from individuals, organizations, and institutions engaged in any aspect of crop protection, and especially IPM. Short items describing experiences, successes, problems, and solutions are welcome. So too are questions, recommendations, viewpoints (pro and con), and IPM-related opinion statements.

Communications to the IPMnet NEWS

..... may be sent to any of the following: E-mail: deutscha@bcc.orst.edu Fax: 01-503-737-3080 Postal: IPMnet NEWS

c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA Phone: 01-503-737-6275

This mosaic version of IPMnet NEWS was marked up by J. E. Bacheler for the Cente r for IPM. The Center takes full responsibility for the appearance of this mosai c document.

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