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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


August 1995, Issue no. 20
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

I. IPM NEWS / APPLICATIONS international IPM news, and application of IPM techniques and programs. Congress Focuses on Sustainable Protection Representatives from around the world attended the recent 13th International Plant Protection Congress, held under the theme of "Sustainable Crop Protection for the Benefit of All." This Congress, which convenes every four years and involves all crop protection disciplines, gathered in the Hague, Netherlands, in 1995, and heard L.O. Fresco, in an opening address, note that population growth and rapid urbanization in the coming decades, in combination with the liberalization of agricultural trade, will have profound effects on agricultural production systems throughout the world. Dr. Fresco emphasized that crop protection will need to evolve towards integrated protection of entire agricultural production and even land use systems, including the protection of habitats, and with due recognition of variability in space and time.

The challenge of such integrated systems protection will be twofold:

to fine-tune improved agricultural practices, employing conventional and/or biotechnology-based resistance breeding and use of agrochemical and biological control, and use them in a broad land use systems approach; and,

to develop methods to transfer and exchange knowledge involving farmers and other land managers and policy makers. This highly successful meeting proceeded with a wealth of oral as well as poster presentations dealing with the various aspects of sustainable crop protection, with one day devoted to visiting various nearby research centers. The first Congress was held in Belgium in 1946 and an international standing committee was established in 1967 to assure its continuity. While early meetings dealt largely with the "miracle" of pesticides, the themes became more fundamental starting with the 1979 meeting.

excerpted from material prepared by Dr. G.A. Schaefers, Executive Director, Consortium for International Crop Protection

Btk Performance Surveyed To assess the performance of products containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (Btk) for control of fruit tree and European leafroller larvae, scientists in Canada's British Columbia Province sent a questionnaire to 85 fruit growers in the fruit-growing area around Kelowna, BC, who had applied either Dipel WP or Foray 48B in the spring of 1994. Growers were asked to rate the performance of Btk and to answer questions on factors they felt could influence Btk performance such as spray volume, travel speed, tree density, weather conditions, and timing. Twenty-seven growers replied representing 48 blocks of either apple, pear, or cherry. Data from 36 blocks which had only received one application of Btk and no other insecticide were used in tabulating the results the following summary.

Because Foray 48B was not available until late in the leafroller control period, 89% of the blocks were treated with Dipel WP.

Three-quarters of the respondents applied Btk at the lowest recommended rate (2.25 kg Dipel WP/ha; 2.8 L Foray 48B/ha); petal fall was the preferred stage of apple/pear development when the applications were made (70%).

All but one grower applied Btk after 4:00PM, the recommended practice for the interior of British Columbia.

Most respondents (56%) applied Btk in volumes of 843 to 1123 L/ha (range 560 - 1404 L/ha), and 47% sprayed at travel speeds of 2.5 to 3.2 kph (range 1.7 - 6 kph).

Weather conditions were idealwarm and drywith no rainfall for at least 24 hours after spraying.

The majority of blocks consisted of mixed apple varieties planted at a density of <494 3-to-4.6 m-high trees/ha.

Sixty six percent of the respondents rated performance of Btk at Ŝ" or more on a scale of 1-to-10 (1=poor; 10=excellent); 14% rated performance at Ś-7," and 20% rated performance at ř" or less.

Among respondents, 72% had used an organophosphate (OP) product for leafroller control the previous year. A review of the responses to questions on factors that could have influenced Btk performance did not reveal any clear correlations with performance ratings. In many cases, the number of blocks was too small to make valid correlations between factors and performance ratings. There appeared to be a relationship between spray timing and performance. Growers who applied Btk at "pink" did not rate performance above ś," whereas 88% of bloom sprays, and 59% of petal fall sprays were rated at Ŝ" or more. This result is consistent with the recommended practice of applying Btk after all the larvae have hatched which is usually at full bloom for the McIntosh variety of apple.

The results of this survey revealed that a majority of respondents are following recommended procedures for applying Btk products which, when combined with ideal weather conditions, achieves a high level of satisfaction with Btk performance.

Growers in this area of British Columbia are becoming more familiar with the proper use of Btk products and are also reporting less satisfaction with the performance of recommended OP products (methidathion, azinphos-methyl, diazinon). As a result, local sales of Btk products have risen dramatically in the last two to three years at the expense of OP products used for control of spring generations of leafrollers in apple and pear orchards around Kelowna (BC).

Copies of the summary report are available upon request from: H. Philip, BC Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries & Food, 200, 1690 Powick Road, Kelowna, BC V1X 7G5, CANADA. Phone: 01-604-861-7211. Fax: 01-604-861-7490. E-mail: hphilip@galaxy.gov.bc.ca.

Thanks to Dr. Philip for providing this information.

Cutting Fungicide Use on Apples An Australian scientist, considering the increasing pressure by consumers to reduce pesticides used on food crops, believes that the most likely chance for successful adoption of practices to reduce fungicide usage on apples probably lies with manipulation of current methods. In "Fungicide Use Reduction in Apple Production - Potentials or Pipe Dreams?," L.J. Penrose notes that methods to reduce pesticide usage are not new in general and have been available to growers for some time. Dr. Penrose groups methods for reduced conventional fungicide application in five broad areas:

epidemiological (manipulation of current practices); non-conventional fungicides; biological control with microorganisms; disease-resistant varieties; and, isolation. Expanding on the five areas, Penrose notes that these include a reduction in dose rates associated with inoculum suppression and cessation of apple scab treatments at the end of the primary infection period where good control of the disease has been maintained. Biological control is seen to offer promise for control of post harvest diseases. Disease resistant apple varieties offer scope for niche marketers demanding reduced pesticide growing systems. The impediments to reduced fungicide usage, Penrose writes, are both sociological and financial. The benefits of decreased pesticide usage are largely public, while the risks of loss are private. Unless these risks can be compensated, perhaps with a price premium for untreated, or low-fungicide fruit, it is unlikely that growers will implement such strategies.

The variation in the amount of fungicides used successfully by various growers, Penrose suggests, does offer potential for reducing total industry-wide fungicide usage to a practical minimum.

excerpted from: AGRIC., ECOSYST., & ENVIRON., 53(3), 231-242, May 1995.

New Center Created for Weed Management A group of Australian research and development institutions has launched a new cooperative effort to coordinate and focus expertise in weed management. Based at the Univ. of Adelaide, the Cooperative Research Centre for Weed Management Systems (CRCWMS) officially began life on 01 July 1995 with a triple thrust goal to:

reduce the current massive costs of weeds in agriculture and the natural environment; raise the level of awareness, knowledge, and adoption of weed management systems by practitioners, land managers, and the wider community; and to increase sustainability and protect the natural environment by creating ecologically sound, cost effective weed management systems. The Centre's research disciplines include: biological control, herbicide technology, herbicide resistance, vegetation management, bioherbicides, population and economic modelling, decision support, weed ecology, and population dynamics. The Centre is divided into five programs which cover annual agroecosystems, perennial pasture ecosystems, natural ecosystems, education, and communication and adoption.

A Centre spokesperson noted that sustainability in rural industries has become increasingly important in Australia, especially during the last decade and, "initiatives such as landcare have gone a long way towards addressing some of the issues and increasing public awareness about those issues. Participants in the CRCWMS are highly aware of the need to focus the research effort and ensure [that] education, communication, and adoption in the CRCWMS are highly aware of the need to focus the research effort and ensure [that] education, communication, and adoption are an integral part of the whole process. It is recognized that facilitating community management of weed problems will be a key to the success of the Centre and its identity."

The Centre's three core participants are: the Univ. of Adelaide, CSIRO Division of Entomology, and New South Wales Agriculture. Additionally, there are six other supporting participants: Univ. of New England; Charles Sturt Univ.; Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Victoria (Keith Turnbull Research Institute); Grain Research and Development Corporation; Department of Agriculture, Western Australia; and the National Association for Crop Protection and Animal Health, Avcare Ltd. Many other organizations involved in weed management are expected to play a vital role in the Centre, according to CRCWMS sources.

For information, contact: S. Corey, sharonc@ento.csiro.au.

based on information provided by CRCWMS.


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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

II. IPM MEDLEY general information, publications of interest, and other information and resources related to IPM. Course Targets Pesticide Effects On Beneficials An international training course-workshop, "Evaluation of Pesticide Effects on Natural Enemies & Implications for Pesticide Registration," held last March in Malaysia, attracted 16 participants from 11 Asian nations and resulted in a list of recommendations. The event was aimed at pesticide registration officials and IPM researchers in Asia, and was designed to train participants how to carry out laboratory and field tests on the effects of pesticides on natural enemies, based on protocols developed by the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) Working Group on Pesticides and Beneficials. The training course included a workshop to discuss ways to adapt the test protocols to Asian situations, as well as avenues for bringing natural enemy tests into national registration procedures.

In addition to IOBC, sponsors included CAB International's International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC) and the Institut fur Biologischen Pflanzenschutz, Germany, in collaboration with Malaysia's Dept. of Agriculture and the Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute.

As part of the training follow-up, it was agreed to form an informal network, the Asian Network on Natural Enemies and Pesticides (ANNEP), to be coordinated initially by IIBC-UK. The training-workshop "proceedings" will be published as a training manual during 1995, and organizers plan to repeat the course in 1996.

For a copy of the recommendations list, and information about the training course and the ANNEP network, contact: S. Williamson, Training/Information Officer, IIBC, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks. SL5 7TA, UK. Fax 44-1344-875007.

E-mail: s.williamson@CABI.org.

Noxious Weed Seed List Expanded The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), to strengthen protection against the spread of "noxious" weeds that can threaten natural ecosystems, choke off waterways, and reduce livestock forage, has proposed expanding the current list of noxious weed seeds in the country's Federal Seed Act to include all plants already listed in its Federal Noxious Weed regulations. The new regulations will allow the USDA to regulate foreign commerce to prevent weeds on the list from getting into the country. But there is a technical problem with the way the rules work now. Currently, the USDA cannot prohibit entry of imported agricultural seed shipments even if they are found to contain seeds of noxious weeds.

"The change," said B.G. Lee, deputy administrator of plant protection and quarantine in USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, "will allow USDA to prohibit the entry of any agricultural shipments containing federal noxious weeds."

In a related development, USDA is proposing to add tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) and duck lettuce (Ottelia alismoides) to its list of noxious weeds. Tropical soda apple is a terrestrial weed that reduces usable livestock forage, and duck lettuce, an aquatic weed, can threaten natural ecosystems.

U.S. Broadens Approval for Biopesticide Use The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biological pesticide Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia type Wisconsin in, or on, all raw agricultural commodities, resulting from use on plant roots or seedling roots. The rule, effective 19 July 1995, amends the existing tolerance exemption for this organism, which is limited to seed treatment use. The biopesticide, when applied to roots or seedling roots, will colonize the developing root system, produce antibiotics, and thus protect the seedling or plant from a range of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes. EPA determined that this usage presents no new hazards.

from an EPA electronic information bulletin.

Ag's Environmental Pluses Here's a switch: a conference planned for November 1995 will focus on ways that agriculture can help the environment, rather than simply reducing the damage it imposes on the environment. The event, "Environmental Enhancement Through Agriculture," aims, "to foster a new kind of strategic thinking about agriculture based on `win-win' approaches that serve both agricultural and environmental interests," according to an electronic information bulletin from the conference sponsors.

To be featured are 60 presentationsranging from general concepts to specific research and field projectsand 15 displays, that offer examples of environmental benefits from agriculture including:

Agricultural refuges for wildlife; Watershed protection and water quality enhancement; Renewable alternative sources of energy; Environmentally advantageous recycling of off-farm wastes; Attractive sites for low-impact tourism; and, Aesthetically appealing landscapes. For further information, contact: Henry A. Wallace Institute; Phone: O1-301-441-8777; Fax: 01-301-220-0164; E-mail: hawiaa@access.digex.net.



PUBLICATIONS AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS

The IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention a publication provided it has a connection to IPM. To assure coverage, please send a review copy of the publication, with background information where to obtain copies, data about the author(s), costs, and any other particulars or materialsto:

IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA After review, materials will be cataloged into the Center's extensive international IPM and crop protection literature collection (which the worldwide IPM/crop protection community is welcome to use) or returned if so requested.



Fruit Tree Disorders The pocket-sized FIELD GUIDE TO DISORDERS OF FRUIT TREES offers color photos and brief descriptions of common disorders of fruit trees caused by insect and mite pests, disease pathogens, pesticides, weather, and nutrient deficiencies. It is designed to aid identification of disorders affecting wood, leaves, blossoms, and fruit of fruit trees grown in British Columbia, Canada, and the U.S. Pacific northwest. For more information, contact: Okanagan Valley Tree Fruit Authority, Research Station, Summerland, BC, V0H 1Z0, CANADA. Phone: 01-604-494-5021. Fax: 01-604-494-5024. Plants, Pests, and IPM The 1993 volume, NATURAL ENEMIES OF VEGETABLE INSECT PESTS, by M.P. Hoffmann and A.C. Frodsham, a 63-page handbook with extensive clear, full color photos, received an award for "Outstanding New Extension Publication," and is now available with a 40% price discount to international and Cooperative Extension orders, as well as quantity order discounts. An accompanying slide set (91 slides) can be ordered with the publication, or separately. For more information: send an e-mail inquiry to , or contact via: Fax: 01-607-255-9946 -or- Phone: 01-607-255-2080.



RESOURCES BIOCONTROL PROGRAM REPORT The Biological Control Program of the U.S. State of California's Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) has just released its 1994 Annual Report. The document reports on CDFA's classical biological control projects against insects and weeds in California. A limited number of hard copies are available on a first come first serve basis. Additional electronic copies are available via e-mail in Microsoft Word for Windows v.6.0, or Word Perfect (either DOS or Windows) v.6.1. E-mail requests should be directed to: . Or, contact: S. Schoenig, Biological Control Program, CDFA, 3288 Meadowview Rd., Sacramento, CA 95832, USA.

INFOANDINA ELECTRONIC BULLETIN INFOANDINA is the information network for CONDESAN (Consortia for Sustainable Development of the Andean Region) and is sponsored by the International Potato Center (CIP). A part of INFOANDINA is a monthly electronic bulletin, in both Spanish and English, that reports on IPM developments and includes information on "new publications, listservers, databases, gophers, and event announcements related to biodiversity and natural resources management in the Andean Region." To subscribe, or receive further information, send an e-mail to: , to the attention of E. Mujica, INFOANDINA Coordinator.

BIOCONTROL UNIT ADDS WWW The U.S. Dept. of Agric./Agric. Research Service's Biological Control of Pests Research Unit in Weslaco, TX, USA, now has a WWW homepage online. The URL is: rsru2.tamu.edu The pages are best viewed using Netscape 1.1N. As with most web sites, this one is currently in early development stages, but expected to expand its information offerings. For more information, contact: B.C Legaspi, e-mail blegaspi@mail.tamu.edu.



MATERIALS & EQUIPMENT NEW WALK-BEHIND FLAME WEEDER A U.S. firm has developed a walk-behind flame weeder used for burning off weed plants in small plots. The unit incorporates a galvanized metal hood over four propane-fired jets mounted behind a single wheel. The flame covers a 24-inch (61 cm) wide swath. An operator carries a backpack propane tank and pushes the single handle attached to a main spine. A rubber hose conveys propane from tank to flame jets. For more information, contact: Eden Valley Institute, 6263 NCR 29, Loveland, CO 80538, USA. Phone: 01-303-667-6911. POSITIONS IIBC RECRUITING FOR 2 POSITIONS IIBC (the International Institute of Biological Control), an intergovernmental organization that provides scientific services and information for agricultural and environmental protection throughout the world, announced openings for: DEPUTY DIRECTOR, PROGRAMME DEVELOPMENT (based in UK); and, SCIENTIST IN CHARGE (Kenya Station)

For the DD position, the Institute seeks "a talented scientist with a strong international reputation, and entrepreneurial flair and a sympathy for the problems faced by developing countries." The position will be involved in developing programs in areas such as classical biological control for insects, weeds and diseases affecting agriculture and conservation, biopesticides for developing countries, and development and implementation of IPM.

Candidates for the Kenya position need a commitment to science and development and a record of achievement in both. Responsibilities include management of the research station and its scientific programs such as IPM for small-scale coffee farmers in East Africa, classical biocontrol of invasive weeds and forest insect pests in Africa, and biopesticide development.

For more information, contact: J. Waage, Director, IIBC, Silwood Park, Buckhurst Road, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7TA, UK. Phone: 44-1-344-872999. Fax: 44-1-344-87500. E-mail: j.waage@CABI.org.


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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

III. FORUM / EDITORIAL viewpoints, opinions, and open discussion of IPM issues. [Note: CICP's Executive Director, Dr. G.A. Schaefers, attended the recent International Plant Protection Congress in the Netherlands, and during the event, convened an informal meeting to discuss IPM and brief colleagues on the status of IPMnet. Dr. Schaefer's comments follow.]

As is often the case, the most interesting progress at a meeting results from chance encounters with colleagues who have mutual interests. This certainly was the case during the recent International Plant Protection Congress which afforded an opportunity to discuss the current status of the Consortium for International Crop Protection and our progress with the IPMnet.

About 20 colleagues joined me in an informal discussion on IPM and communication via the Internet. The Consortium is interested in the rational development of a well coordinated global IPM network and the purpose of the meeting was to identify other interests in this regard, as well as to solicit suggestions on how we might move forward.

Issues favoring such coordination include reduction of duplication, common formatting, ethics, keywords, sustainable funding, and the development of appropriate communication technology for Third World networks. A preliminary scenario was developed that envisioned a number of partnerships between IPMnet and various other IPM informational systems.

An informal group of interested pest management scientists is continuing to work together towards a truly global system with IPMnet serving as the neutral umbrella. This represents a val able spin-off from the Congress. Anyone not at the Congress, but wishing to register comments regarding global communication on IPM, is invited to contact me by e-mail.

George A. Schaefers, Executive Director, Consortium for International Crop Protection e-mail: george_schaefers@cornell.edu





IPM A Third Wave Technology By Joel Grossman[copyright 1995; contact author at: e-mail: 3216125@mcimail.com for republication permission]. Mr. Grossman, a former California agricultural pest control adviser and Univ. of California, Berkeley, graduate, has been covering new developments in IPM for the IPM PRACTITIONER and other publications for more years than he cares to reveal.



Alvin and Heidi Toffler, the futurists, describe civilization as going through three major waves. The First Wave, agriculture, was followed by the Second Wave, the industrial age, which is being supplanted by the Third Wave, the information age that everyone reading this on the Internet or via electronic mail is part of. IPM, being information intensive, is part of the Third Wave changing the nature of agricultural and urban pest control. In the Third Wave, brain power and information-intensive pest control is displacing the brute industrial force of broad-spectrum chemicals sprayed on a calendar schedule.

Instead of broad-spectrum eradication of both beneficial and pestiferous life forms, IPM is a more targeted approach to pest control. The goal in IPM is holding pests to tolerable levels without upsetting ecosystems or destroying beneficial life forms. Compared to the old broad-spectrum chemical calendar sprays, IPM requires more precise information and broader knowledge that must be gleaned in a variety of ways from a multiplicity of sources.

With IPM, it is necessary to work harder gathering information and keep good records. For instance, the pest species and their natural enemies need to be identified and monitored. Also, the more known about the ecology and biology of pests and their natural enemies, the easier it is to design pest control strategies that selectively lower pest populations without upsetting ecosystems and natural enemies. Knowledge and researchwhether from field or lab, library literature, online searches, consultants, conferences, or pest control advisersis more than ever the raw material for designing pest control programs.

Basically, brain power and information increase in importance as IPM and Third Wave technologies displace broad-spectrum pesticides and Second Wave industrial age technologies. Producers of information and technologies [e.g. researchers] and distributors [e.g. consultants, publishers] needed to implement IPM programs are also becoming more important as the raw material of pest control becomes less industrial and more knowledge-intensive. By necessity, farmers and pest control advisers and operators must become more diligent students of nature and their own ecosystems, as well as bigger consumers of information as they embrace IPM programs. Rather than one solution [e.g. a broad-spectrum chemical], IPM programs may embrace a multiplicity of pest control solutions [e.g. biological controls, cultural controls, resistant varieties, crop rotations, intercropping, selective chemicals, trapping, baiting] to control pests without harming natural enemies and disrupting ecosystems.

The transition to IPM and Third Wave pest control technologies is not always going to be smooth, as new technologies run into regulatory systems and other barriers designed for old technologies. For example, regulations designed for industrial age broad-spectrum pesticides tend to ensnare new products needed for IPM, such as pheromones, microbes, disease-suppressive composts, and beneficial insects. Surviving and navigating in this age of pest control technology transitions requires patience. The most successful will be able to resist the need for immediate pest control gratification, and adopt a longer term outlook emphasizing continual learning, season-to-season improvements and gradual implementation of new pest control techniques.





IV. RESEARCH ROUNDUP research and findings related to IPM. This Month's Noted Research Papers "Biological Control of a Tropical Weed: A Population Model and Experiment for Sida acuta," Lonsdale, W.M., et al. JRNL. OF APPL. ECOL., 32(2), 391-399, May 1995. "Comparing Glasshouse and Field Performance of Pesticides: An Appraisal," Finney, J.R. PESTICIDE SCI., 44(2), 205, June 1995.

"Control of Zonocerus variegatus by Ultra-low Volume Application of an Oil Formulation of Metarhizium flavoviride conidia," Dourokpindou, O.K., et al. BIOCON. SCI. AND TECH., 5(1), 131-, 1995.

"Effect of Soils, Cropping System and Host Phenotype on Incidence and Severity of Striga gesnerioides on Cowpea in West Africa," Cardwell, K.F., and J.A. Lane. AGRIC., ECOSYST., & ENVIRON., 53(3), 253-262, May 1995.

"DIAGNOSIS - A Novel, Multimedia, Computer-based Approach to Training Crop Protection Practitioners," Stewart, T.M., et al. CROP PROT., 14(3), 241-246, May 1995.

"Fungicide Resistance: Occurrence and Management," Russell, P.E. JRNL. OF AGRIC. SCI., 124(3), 317-324, June 1995.

"How Quality of Host Plant Affects a Predator-prey Interaction in Biological Control," Karban, R. and C. Niiho. ECOL., 76(4), 1206-1219, June 1995.

"Identification, Pathogenicity, and Safety of Alternaria eichhorniae from Egypt as a Bioherbicide Agent for Waterhyacinth," Shabana, Y.M., et al. BIOLOG. CTRL., 5(2), 123-135, June 1995.

"Managing Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Endotoxins: Constraints and Incentives to Implementation," Kennedy, G.G. and M.E. Whalon. JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOMOL., 88(3), 454-460, June 1995.

"Measurement of Airborne Pheromone Concentrations Using Electroantennograms: Interactions Between Environmental Volatiles and Pheromone," Rumbo, E.R., et al. JRNL. OF INS. PHYSIO., 41(6), 457-464, June 1995.

"Optimizing Weed Management Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Take Account of Uncertain Herbicide Performance," Sells, J.E. AGRIC. SYST., 48(3), 271-296, 1995.

"Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Case Studies of Ecological Crop Assessment for Bt Gene Incorporation and Strategies of Management," Wearing, C.H. and H.M.T. Hokkanen. BIOCON. SCI. AND TECH., 4(4), 573-590, 1994.

"Rational Suppression of Sunflower Rust: Development and Evaluation of an Action Threshold," Shtienberg, D. PLANT DIS., 79(5), 506-510, May 1995.

"Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Vertebrate Pest Damage with Emphasis on Feral Pigs," Hone, J. JRNL. OF APPL. ECOL., 32(2), 311-319, May 1995.

"Suppression of the Nematode Heterodera schachtii by the Fungus Hirsutella rhossiliensis as Affected by Fungus Population Density and Nematode Movement," Tedford, E.C., et al. PHYTOPATH., 85(5), 613-617, May 1995.

Additional Research Note Abstracts of the papers presented at the 16th Congress of the Israeli Phytopathological Society, held at the Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, ISRAEL, during February 1995, appear in PHYTOPARA., 23(3), 239- , 1995.
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U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments


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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)


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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

V. CALENDAR future events: meetings, seminars, conferences, and training courses that relate to global IPM. NOTE: sponsors and organizers are cordially encouraged to send information about future events to:

IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA. Fax: 01-503-373-3080 E-mail: deutscha@bcc.orst.edu # = new entry since the last issue of IPMnet NEWS. {+} = additional information. or changes.



See also Meetings and Conferences listed in the WWW Virtual Library for Agriculture.

1995 28 August-2 September 9th SYMPOSIUM OF IOBC/WPRS ON INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION IN ORCHARDS/3rd SYMPOSIUM OF ISHS ON INTEGRATED FRUIT PRODUCTION, Cedzyna (near Kielce), POLAND. Contact: R.W. Olszak, Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Pomologiczna 18, PL 96-100 Skierniewice, P.O. Box 105, POLAND. Phone: 48-40-2021. Fax: 48-40-3238. Conference language: English. 11-14 September PLANT PROTECTION IN EUROPEAN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS THEORY AND PRACTICE, Edinburgh, U.K. Contact: R.G. McKinley, SAC, West Mains Rd., Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, U.K. Phone: 44-0-131-667-1041.

3-6 October 4TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ADJUVANTS FOR AGROCHEMICALS, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA. Contact: CAWSS, PO Box 1108, Frankston, VIC 3199, AUSTRALIA. Phone: 61-3787-3804. Fax: 61-3785-2007.

# 14-18 October Joint meeting, ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA and the ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, Victoria Conference Centre, Victoria, BC, CANADA. Contact: T. Shore, Phone: 01-604-363-0666. Fax: 01-604-363-0775. E-mail: TShore@A1.PFC.Forestry.ca.

6-10 November XVIII CONGRESO NACIONAL DE CONTROL BIOLOGICO, and I CONGRESO AMERICANO DE CONTROL BIOLOGICO, VI CURSO DE CONTROL BIOLOGICO, ECOSUR, Tapachula, Chiapas, MEXICO. Contact: P.L. Fernandez, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Apartado Postal No. 36, 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico. Phone: 52-962-544-77. Fax: 52-962-608-15.

6-25 November, 3RD COURSE ON MICROBIAL INSECT CONTROL, promoted by CENARGEN/EMBRAPA, Brasilia, BRAZIL. Course objective: to treat the importance of entomopathogens in biocontrol of pest insects and vectors of diseases. The course will be offered to Argentinean, Brazilian, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan professionals. Contact: mfraga@cenargen.embrapa.br or, cabral@cenargen.embrapa.br.

20-23 November BRIGHTON CONFERENCE, WEEDS 1995, Brighton, U.K. The premier international event dealing with weed control in crop protection. Contact: CAS Ltd./BCPC, 4 Cavendish Square, London W1M 0BX, U.K. Phone: 44-0-1714-900-900. Fax: 44-0-1716-293-233.

# 21-29 November MODERN CROP PROTECTION: DEVELOPMENT AND PERSPECTIVES, Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Contact: J.H. de Ru, International Training Center, Wageningen Agric. Univ., PO Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS.

5-8 December 3RD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE MANAGEMENT OF DIAMONDBACK MOTH AND OTHER CRUCIFER PESTS, AVRDC, TAIWAN/ ROC. Contact: N.S. Talekar, AVRDC, PO Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan 741, TAIWAN/ROC. Phone: 886-6-583-7801. Fax: 886-6-583-0009.

17-21 December ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

1996 21-26 January 9th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS. Contact: J.H. Hoffmann, Zoology Dept., Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, SOUTH AFRICA. Fax: 27-21-650-3726. E-mail: hoff@botany.vct.ac.za. 6-9 February WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA, annual meeting, Marriot and Omni Hotels, Norfolk, VA, USA. Contact: WSSA, 1508 W. University Ave., Champaign, IL 61821, USA.

24-26 April INTERNATIONAL PESTICIDES CONFERENCE: CROP PROTECTION TOWARDS 2000, KL Hilton International, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Co-organized by the Malaysian Agricultural Chemicals Assn., and the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products. Sessions will cover a wide range of topics, including IPM. Contact: MACA Secretariat, Ticket Serahan, Tingkap No. 43, Damansara Jaya, 47409 Petaling Jaya, MALAYSIA. Phone: 60-3-704-8968. Fax: 60-3-704-8964.

# 9-14 June 5TH SYMPOSIUM OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL (SICONBIOL), Rafain Palace Hotel, Foz do Iguacu (Iguazu Falls), Parana, BRAZIL. Contact: F. Moscardi, President-5th SICONBIOL, EMBRAPA - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Cx. Postal 1061, CEP 86001-970, Londrina, PR, BRAZIL. E-mail: moscardi@cnpso1.embrapa.anpr.br.

25-28 June INTERNATIONAL WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY, Copenhagen, DENMARK. Two concurrent sessions each day beginning with a keynote address on the session theme. Contact: ICS, PO Box 41, DK-2900 Hellerup, DENMARK; or IWSS, c/o IPPC, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA. Phone: 01-503-737-3541. Fax: 01-503-737-3080. E-mail: larsons@bcc.orst.edu.

2-5 July 3RD SYMPOSIUM, EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF ACAROLOGISTS, Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS. Theme: "Ecology and Evolution in the Acari." Emphasis will be given to phylogeny, evolutionary ecology, and population dynamics. Contact: T. Korzilius, Population Biology, Univ. of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS. Fax: 31-20-525-7754. Phone: 31-20-525-7736. E-mail: korzilius@bio.uva.nl.

8-10 July INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INSECT PESTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, U.K. Contact: W. Robinson, Urban Pest Control Resch. Center., Dept. of Entomology, VPI&SU, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319, USA.

27-31 July AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC. ANNUAL MEETING, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Contact: APS, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. Phone: 01-612-454-7250. Fax: 01-612-454-0766.

25-31 August XX INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ENTOMOLOGY, Palazzo dei Congressi, Florence, ITALY. Science program includes 26 sections. Contact: O.I.C., Via A. La Marmora 24, 50121 Florence, ITALY. Fax: 39-55-500-1912. Phone: 39-55-500-0631.

30 September-3 October 11TH AUSTRALIAN WEEDS CONFERENCE, Melbourne Univ., Melbourne, AUSTRALIA. Contact: Weed Sci. Soc. of Victoria, PO Box 987, Frankston, VIC 3199, AUSTRALIA.

no date SIXTH INTERNATIONAL PARASITIC WEED SYMPOSIUM, Cordoba, SPAIN. Contact: M.T. Moreno, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario, Apartado 4240, 14080 Cordoba, SPAIN. Fax: 34-57-202721.

IPMnet Sponsors IPMnet, a Global IPM Information Service, was conceived by the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP) and developed and implemented with guidance and support from the National Biological Impact Assessment Program (NBIAP) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Consortium, 13 U.S. educational/research institutions with strong interests in research, development, and productive application of rational crop protection and pest management, has been an international presence for over 15 years. Current members are: Univ. of California, Cornell Univ., Univ. of Florida, Univ. of Hawaii, Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Miami, Univ. of Minnesota, North Carolina State Univ., Oregon State Univ., Univ. of Puerto Rico, Purdue Univ., Texas A&M Univ., and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

M. Kogan (Oregon State Univ.) chairs CICP's Board of Directors. R. Ford (Univ. of Illinois) is vice chairman, and G.A. Schaefers (Cornell Univ.) serves as acting executive director. The Consortium maintains a business office at:

CICP, Cornell Univ., NYSAES, Geneva, NY 14456-0462, USA. E-mail: cicp@cornell.edu. Phone: 01-315-787-2252.

IPMnet co-sponsor NBIAP was established to facilitate the applications of biotechnology in agriculture and the environment, and is funded by direct U.S. Congressional appropriation. The program operates a national communications system for biotechnology in the U.S. and is cooperating, through these resources, to assist CICP in globally extending IPM information. D.R. MacKenzie (USDA-CSRS) is NBIAP director.

The two IPMnet servers are administered by R.E. Stinner (North Carolina State Univ.) and D.M. King (Virginia Tech).





The IPMnet NEWS .....is co-sponsored by the CICP and NBIAP/U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Mention of specific products, processes, institutions, organizations, or individuals in the IPMnet NEWS does not imply support nor criticism by CICP, NBIAP, nor any individual associated with either organization. Information in IPMnet NEWS may be re printed or quoted providing the IPMnet NEWS is identified as the source.

A.E. Deutsch, IPMnet NEWS Coordinator/Editor.





IPMnet NEWS Advisory Committe

J.D. Harper, chair - jharper@ent.ncsu.edu D. Dickson - dwd@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu A. Alvarez - alvarez@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu M. Kogan, ex-officio - koganm@bcc.orst.edu G. Schaefers, ex-officio - george_schaefers@cornell.





Contributions to the IPMnet NEWS ..... are encouraged from individuals, organizations, and institutions engaged in any aspect of crop protection, and especially IPM. Short items describing experiences, successes, problems, and solutions are welcome. So too are questions, recommendations, viewpoints (pro and con), and IPM-related opinion statements.





Communications to the IPMnet NEWS

..... may be sent to any of the following: E-mail: deutscha@bcc.orst.edu Fax: 01-503-737-3080 Postal: IPMnet NEWS

c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA Phone: 01-503-737-6275



This mosaic version of IPMnet NEWS was marked up by J. E. Bacheler for the Cente r for IPM. The Center takes full responsibility for the appearance of this mosai c document.


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