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January 1996, Issue no. 25
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

I. IPM NEWS / APPLICATIONS international IPM news, and application of IPM techniques and programs. IPM Certification Program Expands The U.S. State of Massachusetts' IPM Certification Program, "Partners With Nature," completed its third year of operation in 1995, with a 32 percent increase in participation over 1994. IPM certification is based on the use of best management practices including: soil and nutrient management; disease management; insect management; weed management; pesticide application and records; and education. In 1995, 68 qualifying crops including strawberry, sweet corn, potato, cole crops, and tomato grown on 37 farms were IPM certified.

IPM certification is based on a point system that weights production practices according to their difficulty and their importance to management. Practices are documented with written records where practical. Partial credit can be earned by completing a percentage of an appropriate practice. A crop can be IPM certified when a grower verifies that 70 percent of the possible IPM practices were followed.

Program sponsors feel that the point system has a number of advantages. It lists all of the best management practices available to the grower. Growers then have the flexibility to select and design the most appropriate IPM system for their particular farm conditions. Use of the most desirable practices is encouraged by assigning them more weight. Allowing partial credit prompts growers to try new techniques.

All farmers who enroll in the certification program are provided with educational materials. Qualifying growers are licensed to use the "Partners With Nature" logo and are provided with marketing assistance including posters, brochures, and documents that prove their crop is IPM certified. The program is also associated with the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's (USDA) federal cost-sharing program, so that growers meeting certification requirements are eligible for cost-share funds.

The Massachusetts IPM Certification Program is jointly administered by the Univ. of Massachusetts Extension, the Massachusetts Dept. of Food and Agriculture, and the USDA Farm Services Agency. For more information, contact: C. Hollingsworth, IPM Specialist, Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Massachusetts, Box 30210, Amherst, MA 01003-0210, USA. Phone: 1-413-545-1055. E-mail: chollingsworth@umext.umass.edu.

IPM Program in Sudan Broadened The long running FAO/Government of Sudan IPM project, funded by the Government of the Netherlands, has recently opened an Integrated Pest Management Research and Training Centre at Wad Medani. The new building can accommodate regional IPM research and training activities for nations in the region. The collaborative IPM effort, now known as the FAO/ARC IPM Project, began in the late 1970s and has significantly reduced the use of pesticides, primarily in Sudanese produced cotton. Phase IV of the program began in 1993 and is primarily devoted to IPM in vegetable crops.

The successful use of `farmer field schools' in Asia to implement IPM has been adopted in Sudan in close partnership with several governmental departments. Both the Univ. of Gezira and Univ. of Khartoum are contributing to Phase IV. More than 30 extensionists, entomologists, plant physiologists, and weed scientists are assigned to the project, according to the report of the program's 1995 annual review and planning meeting.

The report notes that, "national support for the IPM project is tremendous," and that Farmers Unions are "very supportive." During 1995, Sudan's IPM Steering Committee has been transformed into a permanent National IPM Committee.

For more information: Z.T. Dabrowski, Chief Technical Adviser, FAO/ARC IPM Project, PO Box 1117, Khartoum, SUDAN.

Study Looks at IPM for sub-Saharan Africa A study summarized in a late 1994 report provides, among other elements, an insightful and thorough review of the complexities of implementing IPM in African agriculture. The document, BILATERAL DONOR AGENCIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: PEST AND PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT, by R.J. Tobin, reviews sector assistance offered by five major donors (France, Germany, Japan, UK, and USA) and examines the donors' policies of the designed to promote agricultural trade or production in sub-Saharan Africa. Varying approaches and attitudes among donors toward provision of pesticides and support for IPM, as well as cultural impediments and diverse national considerations, are cogently set forth in a direct manner. The conclusion Dr. Tobin reached is not entirely positive nor are the answers to a series of critical questions always encouraging.

The study, prepared for the Office of Sustainable Development, within the U.S. Agency for International Development's Bureau for Africa, drew upon extensive contacts with key individuals representing organizations in each of the five donor nations. The inescapable reaction to this study is that Tobin has cut through the dialog and developed a factually-based, balanced overview.

For more information, contact: R.J. Tobin, Environmental & Natural Resource Policy & Training Project, 1611 North Kent St., Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22209, USA. Fax: 1-703-516-0481. E-mail: richt@dc.winrock.org. Phone: 1-703-525-9430.

The words you're reading are seen by over 400 other IPMnet NEWS recipients in 49 nations.
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

II. IPM MEDLEY general information, publications of interest, and other information and resources related to IPM. Insect Research Center Marks 25 Years The International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) has published a full color retrospective pamphlet, ൡ Years of Research in Tropical Insect Science." The text and numerous photos document the Centre's quarter-century of progress from a concept and modest beginnings to a modern research organization recently reshaped to address key scientific issues in the tropical developing world. According to the text, ICIPE has renewed its mandate to "serve as a force to alleviate world poverty and to ensure food security and good health for the peoples of the tropics through management and control of both harmful and useful arthropods."

In late 1994, Swiss scientist and 1995 World Food Prize laureate H.R. Herren was appointed ICIPE's director general. Dr. Herren observed that, despite progress, the future challenge of pest management in the tropics is daunting.

ICIPE has now "reoriented its research agenda toward areas long neglected in Africa and to a lesser degree in the tropics as a whole," Herren noted in the Centre's 1994 annual report. One new thrust will focus on horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals) because these plants are the target of so many arthropod pests and the site of major pesticide abuse because of high market value and cosmetic requirements.

For more information, contact: ICIPE, PO Box 30772, Nairobi, KENYA. Phone: 254-2-861686. Fax: 254-2-803360.

U.S. Wildlife Research Relocates Wildlife research in a new U.S. federal facility was scheduled to begin in 1995 with initial emphasis on development of attractants and repellants leading to new, effective, and acceptable wildlife management methods. The new U.S. National Wildlife Research Center (NWRC) is being phased in on the campus of Colorado State Univ. at Ft. Collins, in the state of Colorado. The present facilities the Denver Wildlife Research Center (DWRC) will be closed when its research functions are incorporated into the NWRC. The Center's Research programs focus on resolving problems resulting from human/wildlife interaction.

One of the more prominent programs involves bird strikes to commercial and military aircraft which cause many million dollars in damage and occasional loss of human life. A current project underway seeks to quantify the magnitude and nature of bird strikes to aircraft nationwide. Another effort, in progress at DWRC's Ohio field station, is investigating responses of birds and small mammals to various grass management regimes at one of the nation's busiest commercial airports, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport. The objective is to provide information that could help minimize the population of gulls, starlings, hawks, and waterfowl through reducing the factors that serve as attractants.

A program to evaluate a collar worn by sheep to deter coyote predation found that the device, when punctured, did release a deterrent substance, but which only temporarily halted the attack.

Another effort continues to research various immunocontraception techniques for both mammals and birds.

An international thrust covers a range of activities including reduction of blackbird damage to rice in Uruguay, and management of the brown tree snake (BTS) on Guam. The threat in the latter case is BTS introduction into other Pacific islands which could trigger a similar ecological disaster. On Guam, the BTS, a species accidentally introduced via cargo following World War II, has extirpated several species of indigenous birds, caused numerous power outages, and has bitten infants and small children.

For more information, both specific and general, contact: DWRC, PO Box 25266, Bldg. 16 Denver Fed. Center, Denver, CO 90225-0266. Phone: 1-303-236-7874. Fax: 1-303-236-4074.

excerpted from: DWRC RESEARCH UPDATE, Fall 1995.

IPMporium ..... Scientists at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Banos, Philippines) are experimenting with using the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene as a "built-in" protectant against one of the most damaging insect pests of rice, the yellow stemborer [Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker)]. Seeds of transgenic rice containing the Bt gene were supplied by Ciba-Geigy through the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. ..... In recent months the destructive cocoa pod borer (Acrocercops cramerella) has affected more than 40,000 hectares of cocoa land in Sulawesi, Indonesia's main growing region.

..... In 1996, U.S. producers will have access to genetically altered corn seed that incorporates a gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt soil bacteria, that, according to research conducted at Iowa State Univ., provides safe, effective control of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), European corn borer, without reducing yields.

..... Four entities that have adopted techniques to increase the benefits and reduce the risks of pest management were honored as "IPM Innovators" by the U.S. State of California in the second year of a joint state-federal government awards program. The honorees included a nursery, a growers' association, and two governmental organizations.

..... Japanese pest management scientists have established a national IPMnet link for information sharing and product development.

..... A noted world authority predicts that food security will outrank military security in parts of the world in coming years because of ever tightening food supplies and upwardly spiraling prices.


IPMnet NEWS wants to mention any publication related to or focused on IPM. To assure coverage, please send a review copy of the publication, with background information where to obtain copies, data about the author(s), costs, and any other particulars or descriptive materials to:

IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA After review, materials will be cataloged into the joint CICP/IPPC international IPM and crop protection literature collection (which the worldwide IPM/crop protection community is welcome to use) or returned if so requested.

Pesticide Policy Guidelines One of the more recent publications in the "Pesticide Policy Project Series" (PPPS) is GUIDELINES FOR PESTICIDE POLICY STUDIES: A Framework for Analyzing Economic and Political Factors of Pesticide Use in Developing Countries, by S. Agne, et al. Elaborating on material developed at an FAO Panel of Experts on Integrated Pest Control (1994), the 27-page work aims to establish a general methodological framework and "to facilitate inter-country comparisons and to raise the level of transparency of pesticide policy studies." The premise is that several factors contribute to the sluggish adoption of IPM, key among them a lack of knowledge of the factors that influence the use of "chemical" pesticides. The PPPS arose from a belief that the current use of pesticides exceeds a level that is acceptable to society. For more information, contact: H. Waibel, GTZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische, Zusammenarbeit), Abt. 423-4, Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, GERMANY. E-mail: waibel@ifgb.uni-hannover.de. Phone: 49-6196-791430. Fax: 49-6196-791115.

IPM for Tropics Surveyed "The IPM approach," note A.N. Mengech and co-editors of INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN THE TROPICS, Current Status and Future Prospects, "involves the use of different tactics in compatible combinations to keep pest populations below the levels at which they cause economic injury." The result of a joint effort of the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (in Kenya) and the UN's Environment Programme, this new hardbound, 185-page work ambitiously aims to assess the current status and prospect for IPM in tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and South America. It also includes a survey of IPM strategies on a crop-by-crop basis for each continent. For information, contact: J. Wiley & Sons Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, U.K. Phone: 44-1243-829121. E-mail: GBJWSRG1@ibmmail.com. Fax: 44-1243-770225.

IPM Targets Vegetables in Sudan Now that Sudanese agriculture has accepted IPM, thanks to earlier work in cotton, the joint FAO/Government of Sudan IPM effort has shifted its focus to vegetables. The guiding document is INTEGRATED VEGETABLE CROP MANAGEMENT IN THE SUDAN, edited by Z.T. Dabrowski, chief technical advisor to the IPM program. The text incorporates a series of papers establishing need, strategy, and projected impact. An extensive section presents findings for a survey of regional vegetable production. The softbound, 71-page work, was published by ICIPE Science Press, PO Box 72913, Nairobi, Kenya. Gene Transfer to Plants I. Potrkus and G. Spangenberg have edited GENE TRANSFER TO PLANTS, a new, softbound addition to the Springer Lab Manual series. The 1995 publication has 361 pages spread over 42 chapters, and includes color plates. The ISBN is: 3-540-58406-4. Contact: Springer-Verlag, 175 Fifth Ave., New York, 10010, USA. Biological Control Assessed The latest report from the U.S. National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences' Board on Agriculture is ECOLOGICALLY BASED PEST MANAGEMENT: NEW SOLUTIONS FOR A NEW CENTURY. The work, according to a prepublication news release, focuses on identifying and overcoming barriers to the use of biological management methods. For more specifics, contact NRC/NAS at e-mail: ccarlson@nas.edu. Phone: 1-800-624-6242, or 1-202-334-3062. Pest Management Series A publisher in the U.K. offers a pair of recent titles: PEST MANAGEMENT IN THE SUBTROPICS: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT; and, PEST MANAGEMENT IN THE SUBTROPICS: BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, both by D. Rosen, et al. The two 500+ page, hardbound volumes are based on research and experience in the U.S. state of Florida, and in combinationcover a vast range of topics and material. For information, contact: Intercept Ltd., PO Box 716, Andover, Hants. SP10 1YG, U.K. Phone: 44-1264-334748. Fax: 44-1264-334058. Other Newer Titles - FOREST INSECT AND DISEASE CONDITIONS IN WEST CENTRAL CANADA IN 1994 AND PREDICTIONS FOR 1995, Brandt, J.P., 1995, (NOR-X-340), Natural Resources Canada-Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, 5320 - 122 St., Edmonton, ALB. T6H 3S5, CANADA. - INSECT PHEROMONES AND THEIR USE IN PEST MANAGEMENT, Howse, P., et al, 1995, (no. 5074), 256 pgs., Intercept Ltd., PO Box 716, Andover, Hants SP10 1YG, U.K. Fax: 44-1264-334058.

- PRODUCTS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN NEMATODE CONTROL, Williamson, F., 1995, 108 pgs, Agrow Reports, 18/20 Hill Rise, Richmond, Surrey, TW10 6UA, U.K. Fax: 44-181-9486866.

RESOURCES AQUATIC WEED BIOCONTROL A set of two computer programs has been packaged as "Herbivores of Exotic Aquatic Plants," by M.J. Grodowitz, et al. The materials aid in identification of 28 insect predators that have been investigated and released for biocontrol of several exotic aquatic plants responsible for causing major problems. One program concerns insect identification and the second enables users to identify feeding damage to the target plant species. Visual material covers larval and adult stages. Additional information includes background information for the various biocontrol agents as well as suggested collection techniques. For more information: C.M. Bauer, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, PO Box 4970, Jacksonville, FL 32232-0019, USA. Phone: 1-904-232-2074. ELECTRONIC DISCUSSION GROUPS In response to an inquiry, R.A. Humber of Cornell Univ. (USA) listed a number of phytopathology and mycology discussion groups, including: bionet.mycology

bionet.microbiology bionet.population-bio bionet.plants

as well as "the best of the Web pages on mycology, `The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Mycology'":

muse.bio.cornell.edu The American Phytopathological Society web page is another good source for information and links involving plant pathology, at:


IPM MATERIALS A California company offers a number of IPM videos and publications. Newer titles include: GROUND SQUIRREL MANAGEMENT: A Better Understanding of Your Options; COMPLETE GUIDE TO PEST CONTROL WITH AND WITHOUT CHE ICALS; and, DISEASES OF LANDSCAPE PLANTS. For a free, illustrated catalog, contact: Visual Education Productions, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407, USA. Phone: 1-800-235-4146. Fax: 1-805-756-5550.

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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

III. FORUM / EDITORIAL viewpoints, opinions, and discussion of IPM issues. I, P, and M: Three Familiar Letters When combined, those three ordinary letters have evolved into a critically important international approach to improving crop production and simultaneously decreasing a threat to the environment and human welfare. "IPM" not only is shorthand for Integrated Pest Management, but an acronym that's now synonymous with advancement in the way humans are attempting to cope and coexist with other species that compete for space and food in the universe. While "pest" and "management" seem relatively straight-forward and unambiguous, how did they come to be preceded by "integrated?" Who, in fact, coined the phrase that is now nearly universal? Here is one possible scenario. Readers with other information are invited to offer their insights and comments.

The burgeoning post World War II economy of the western U.S.'s biggest agricultural state, California, led to an explosion in agricultural production. With increased land brought into production, there came the inevitable upsurge in insects, weeds, and other pest species that posed problems both real and perceived. The clamor from consumers first and then producers for immediate, effective control methods led to expanded chemical control, supplanted to ever lessening degrees by other practices.

Visionaries began to warn of the implications of reliance on, and over-use of, chemicals. A few researchers focused on biological control techniques and their potential benefits, but were not ready to offer assured, deliverable methods to commercial growers. A group of entomologists from two Univ. of California branches began to investigate augmenting one form of control with another. One of the earliest published research papers in this vein was "The Integration of Chemical and Biological Control of the Spotted Alfalfa Aphid: The Integrated Control Concept," by V.M. Stern, R.F. Smith, R. van den Bosch, and K.S. Hagen, in HILGARDIA, 29(2), 81-101, October 1959.

"With adequate knowledge," these pioneers observed, chemical and biological control can augment one another. "Integrated control combines and integrates biological and chemical controls. Chemical control is used as necessary and in a manner which is least disruptive to biological control. Thought must be given to biological control of not only the primary pest under consideration but also other potential pests," they noted.

Stern et al concluded that, "Integrated control is most successful when sound economic thresholds have been established, rapid sampling methods have been devised, and selective insecticides are available."

The concept later shifted from one of "control" to one of "management" and grew from only referring to pest insect species to include the numerous weed species that were and are economically devastating pests, as well as diseases, nematodes, and vertebrates.

The architects of what we now know as IPM were clear: the approach they developed was intended to be integrative, resourceful, and sensitive to prevailing conditions, not necessarily exclusionary, and certainly not limiting. Their nearly four-decade old legacy should benefit mankind well into the future.


IV. RESEARCH REVIEW research and findings related to IPM. Energy-efficient Weed Management A team of Canadian scientists conducted energy audits for conventional and alternative weed management systems and found that most alternative methods of weed control (e.g. reduced herbicide and tillage inputs) are more energy efficient than conventional weed control practices broadcast application of herbicides at recommended rates. The experiments, conducted in Ontario Province, revealed that energy was conserved by eliminating or reducing tillage and reducing or eliminating herbicide application. Eliminating tillage was more energy efficient than eliminating herbicide. Also, low-input systems were more efficient in converting energy into crop yield than high-input systems, provided substituted inputs were used in moderation.

In the Ontario trials, modifications in fertilizer use were more important for energy conservation than weed management because the latter represented only 20-25 percent of the annual energy cost for systems using "synthetic" herbicides and fertilizers.

excerpted from: "Energy Analysis of Tillage and Herbicide Inputs in Alternative Weed Management Systems," Clements, D.R., et al, AGRIC. ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRON., 52, 119-128, 1995.

This Month's Noted Research Papers "Borer Infestation and Damage in Relation to Maize Stand Density and Water Stress in the Ivory Coast," Moyal, P. INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MAN., 41(2), 114-, April-June 1995. "Comparison of Sprayable and Film Mulches in Delaying the Onset of Aphid-transmitted Virus Diseases in Zucchini Squash," Summers, C.G., et al. PLANT DIS., 79(11), 1126-1131, November 1995.

"Components of Early Competition Between Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Brachiaria brizantha (Hoechst ex ARich) Stapf.," Fischer, A., et al. INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MAN., 41(2), 100-103, April-June 1995.

"Conceptual and Practical Aspects of Variability in Root-knot Nematodes Related to Host Plant Resistance," Roberts, P.A. ANN. REV. OF PHYTOPATH., 33, 199-222, 1995.

"Control of the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella) in Apple and Pear Orchards in Israel by Mating Disruption," Kehat, M., et al. PHYTOPARASITICA, 43(4), 285-296, 1995.

"Damage Potential of Hesperotettrix viridis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) on a Rangeland Weed, Gutierrezia sarothae," Thompson, D.C., et al. ENVIRON. ENTOMOL., 24(5), 1315-1321, October 1995.

"Ecological Pest Management (EPM): General Approaches," Tshemyshev, W.B. JRNL. OF APPL. ENTOMOL., 119(5), 379-, June 1995.

"Evaluation of the Aphid-day Standard as a Predictor of Yield Loss Caused by Cereal Aphids," Kieckhefer, R.W., et al. AGRON. JRNL, 87(5), 785-788, September-October 1995.

"Influence of a Pheromone-based Mass-trapping System on the Distribution of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Oil Palm," Oehlschlager, A.C., et al. ENVIRON. ENT., 24(5), 1005-1012, October 1995.

"Managing Rice Pests with Less Chemicals," Heong, K.L., et al. GEOJRNL., 35(3), 337-349, March 1995.

"Novel Disease Control Compounds: The Potential to `Immunize' Plants Against Infection," Lyon, G.D., et al. PLANT PATH., 44(3), 407-427, June 1995.

"Pest and Disease Management in Hawke's Bay, New Zealand Apple Orchards: Results of an `Advice-givers' Survey," Stewart, T.M., and J. Mumford. N.Z. JRNL. OF CROP AND HORT. SCI., 23(3), 257-266, September 1995.

"Populations of Foliage-inhabiting Arthropods on Soybean with Reduced Tillage and Herbicide Use," Buntin, G.D., et al. AGRON. JRNL, 87(5), 789-794, September-October 1995.

"Selection of Bacterial Antagonists for the Biological Control of Rhizoctonia solani in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)," Fiddaman, P.J., and S. Rossall. PLANT PATH., 44(4), 695-703, August 1995.

"Spinach (Spinacia oleracea var. Attica) as a Host of Egyptian Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca)," Goldwasser, Y. PHYTOPARASITICA, 43(4), 357-358, 1995.

"The Effects of Transgenic Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., Containing Bacillus thruringiensis Toxin Genes for the Control of the Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and Other Arthropods," Flint, H.M., et al. SOUTHWESTERN ENTOMOL., 20(3), 281-292, September 1995.

"The Need for Integrated Weed Management Systems in Smallholder Conservation Farming in Zimbabwe," Vogel, H. TROPENLAND-WIRT, 96, 35-56, April 1995.

"Timing of Plowing and Planting: Effects on Seedcorn Maggot Populations in Soybean," Hammond, R.B. CROP PROT., 14(6), 471-478, September 1995.

"Use of Alien Genes for the Development of Disease Resistance in Wheat," Jones, S.S., et al. ANN. REV. OF PHYTOPATH., 33, 429-444, 1995.

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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

V. CALENDAR future events: meetings, seminars, conferences, and training courses that relate to global IPM. NOTE: sponsors and organizers are cordially encouraged to send information about future events to:

IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA. Fax: 01-541-373-3080 E-mail: IPMnetNUZ@bcc.orst.edu # = new entry since the last issue of IPMnet NEWS. {+} = additional information. or changes.

See also Meetings and Conferences listed in the WWW Virtual Library for Agriculture.

1996 21-26 January 9th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS. The program includes a full session on integrated control. Preceded by: 3RD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BIOHERBICIDES. Contact: J.H. Hoffmann, Zoology Dept., Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700, SOUTH AFRICA. Fax: 27-21-650-3726. E-mail: hoff@botany.vct.ac.za. 28-30 January 30TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, ASSOCIATION OF APPLIED INSECT ECOLOGISTS, Sacramento, CA, USA. Theme is, "The Future of IPM." Contact: J. Plain, AAIE, 1008 10th St., Suite 549, Sacramento, CA 95814, USA. Phone: 1-916-441-5224.

4-9 February INTERNATIONAL NEEM CONFERENCE, Lawes, QLD., AUSTRALIA. Contact: E. Hassan, Dept. of Plant Production, Univ. of Queensland Gatton College, Lawes, QLD 4343, AUSTRALIA.

5-9 February FOREST INSECT MANAGEMENT COURSE, Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, CANADA. A cooperative effort of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Canadian Forest Service, and Canadian Institute of Forestry. Contact: E. Harvey, Canadian Forest Service, Forest Pest Management Institute, 1219 Queen Street East, Sault Ste Marie, ON, P6A 5M7, CANADA. Phone: 1-705-759-5740, ext. 2251. Fax: 1-705-759-5728. E-mail: eharvey@pmoeafpm.fpmi.forestry.ca.

6-9 February WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA, annual meeting, Marriot and Omni Hotels, Norfolk, VA, USA. Contact: WSSA, 1508 W. University Ave., Champaign, IL 61821, USA. Phone: 1-217-352-4212. E-mail: wssa@uiuc.edu.

26-28 February 12TH BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL PLANT RESISTANCE TO INSECTS WORKSHOP, Savannah Marriott Riverfront Hotel, Savannah, GA, USA. Contact: O. Sosa, USDA-ARS, Star Route Box 8, Canal Point, FL 33438, USA. Phone: 1-407-924-5227. Fax: 1-407-924-6109.

27 February-1 March U.S. 3RD NATIONAL IPM SYMPOSIUM/WORKSHOP, Sheraton-Washington Hotel, Washington, DC, USA. Contact: B.J. Jacobsen, USDA IPM Coordinator, Ag Box 2220, Washington, DC 20250-2220, USA. E-mail: bjacobsen@reeusda.gov. Phone: 1-202-401-6627. Fax: 1-202-401-4888.

4-7 March 17TH VERTEBRATE PEST CONFERENCE, Rohnert Park, CA, USA. Contact: T.P. Salmon, DANR-North Region, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616-8575, USA.

# 9-10 March MEETING, PEST MANAGEMENT NODE OF AGRICULTURE & AGRI-FOOD CANADA `TREE FRUIT NETWORK,' Kentville Research Centre, Kentville, N.S. Contact: R. Smith, AAFC, 32 Main St. Kentville, N.S., B4N 1J5, CANADA. Phone: 1-902-679-5730. Fax: 1-902-679-2311. E-mail: SmithR@em.agr.ca.

17-23 March 9TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VIRUS DISEASES OF ORNAMENTALS, Herzlia, ISRAEL. Contact: G. Loebenstein, Dept. of Virology, Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, ISRAEL. Fax: 972-3-960-4180.

# 8-12 April NORTH AMERICAN FOREST INSECT WORK CONFERENCE, "Forest Entomology - Vision 20:21," San Antonio, TX, USA. Interdisciplinary panels, workshops, and posters focused on forest health management in Canada, USA, and Mexico. Contact: R. Billings, PO Box 310, Lufkin, TX 75902-0310, USA.

16-18 April SIXTH INTERNATIONAL PARASITIC WEED SYMPOSIUM, Cordoba, SPAIN. Contact: M.T. Moreno, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Agrario, Apartado 4240, 14080 Cordoba, SPAIN. Phone: 34-57-293833. Fax: 34-57-202721.

22-25 April INTERNATIONAL MEETING ON MANAGING THE CITRUS LEAFMINER, Orlando, FL, USA. Invited talks and posters will provide information on CLM (Phyllocnistis citrella Staint): biology, monitoring, impact, research needs, developing integrated controls, and regulatory issues. Contact: M.A. Hoy, Dept. of Entomology & Nematology, PO Box 110620, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA. E-mail: mahoy@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu. Phone: 01-904-392-1901, ext. 153. Fax: 01-904-392-0190.

29 April-24 May 3RD INTERNATIONAL TRAINING COURSE ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPOD PESTS & WEEDS, Silwood Park, U.K. Contact: S. Williamson, IIBC, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks. SL5 7TA, U.K. E-mail: . Fax: 44-1344-875007. Phone: 44-1344-872999.

24-26 April INTERNATIONAL PESTICIDES CONFERENCE: CROP PROTECTION TOWARDS 2000, KL Hilton International, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Co-organized by the Malaysian Agricultural Chemicals Assn., and the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products. Sessions will cover a wide range of topics, including IPM. Contact: MACA Secretariat, Ticket Serahan, Tingkap No. 43, Damansara Jaya, 47409 Petaling Jaya, MALAYSIA. Phone: 60-3-704-8968. Fax: 60-3-704-8964.

24-28 April ECONOMICS OF AGRO-CHEMICALS, a symposium of the International Assn. of Agric. Economists, Wageningen International Conference Centre (WICC), Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Contact: A. Wossink, Wageningen Agric. Univ., Dept. of Farm Management, PO Box 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. E-mail: Ada.Wossink@ALG.abe.wau.nl. Phone: 31-317-484370. Fax: 31-317-484763.

# 25-26 April AMERICAN CROP PROTECTION ASSOCIATION SPRING CON- FERENCE, Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel, Arlington, VA, USA. Contact: M. James, e-mail: michellj@acpa.org. Phone: 1-202-463-0474.

7 May 48TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CROP PROTECTION, Univ. of Gent, BELGIUM. Contact: L. Tirry, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent, BELGIUM. Phone: 32-0-9-264-6152. Fax: 32-0-9-264-6239.

13-15 May 6TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON PESTICIDES IN SOIL AND THE ENVIRONMENT, Stratford-upon-Avon, UK. Contact: AAP, c/o Horticulture Research International, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK. Phone: 44-1789-470382. Fax: 44-1789-470234.

9-14 June 5TH SYMPOSIUM OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL (SICONBIOL), Rafain Palace Hotel, Foz do Iguacu (Iguazu Falls), Parana, BRAZIL. Contact: F. Moscardi, President-5th SICONBIOL, EMBRAPA - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja, Cx. Postal 1061, CEP 86001-970, Londrina, PR, BRAZIL. E-mail: moscardi@cnpso1.embrapa.anpr.br.

23-28 June 11TH INTERNATIONAL BOTRYTIS SYMPOSIUM, Wageningen, NETHERLANDS. Contact: J.A.L. van Kan, Dept. of Phytopathology, WAU, PO Box 8025, 6700 EE Wageningen, NETHERLANDS. E-mail: jan.vankan@medew.fyto.wau.nl. Phone: 31-8370-83126. Fax: 31-8370-83412.

25-28 June 2ND INTERNATIONAL WEED CONTROL CONGRESS, organized by the International Weed Science Society, Copenhagen, DENMARK. Two concurrent sessions each day beginning with a keynote address on the session theme. Contact: ICS, PO Box 41, DK-2900 Hellerup, DENMARK; or IWSS, c/o IPPC, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA. Phone: 01-503-737-3541. Fax: 01-503-737-3080. E-mail: larsons@bcc.orst.edu.

1 July-16 August INTERNATIONAL COURSE: BIOLOGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INSECTS AND MITES OF IMPORTANCE TO MANKIND, London, UK. Contact: D. Agassiz, IIE, 56 Queen's Gate, London SW7 5JR, UK. E-mail: d.agassiz@cabi.org. Fax: 44-1715-811676.

2-5 July 3RD SYMPOSIUM, EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION OF ACAROLOGISTS, Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS. Theme: "Ecology and Evolution in the Acari." Emphasis will be given to phylogeny, evolutionary ecology, and population dynamics. Contact: T. Korzilius, Population Biology, Univ. of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 320, 1098 SM Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS. Fax: 31-20-525-7754. Phone: 31-20-525-7736. E-mail: korzilius@bio.uva.nl.

2-7 July 3RD INTERNATIONAL NEMATOLOGY CONGRESS, Gosier, Guadeloupe, FRENCH WEST INDIES. Contact: A. Kermarrec, INRA, BP 1232, F-97185 Pointe-a-Pitre Cedex, Guadeloupe, FWI. Phone: 590-255-940. Fax: 590-941-172.

8-10 July INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INSECT PESTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh, U.K. Contact: W. Robinson, Urban Pest Control Resch. Center., Dept. of Entomology, VPI&SU, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0319, USA.

8-19 July 4TH ANNUAL SUMMER INSTITUTE ON GLOBAL PEST RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT, East Lansing, MI, USA. Contact: M.R. Bush or M.E. Whalon, B-11 Pesticide Research Center, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1311, USA. Phone: 1-517-355-1768. E-mail: bushm@pilot.msu.edu. Fax: 1-517-353-5598.

15-18 July 14TH SOUTH AFRICAN WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY CONGRESS, Lowveld Agric. College, Nelspruit, SOUTH AFRICA. Contact: SAWSS, PO Box 27552, Sunnyside, Pretoria 0132, SOUTH AFRICA. Phone: 27-12-4203-227. Fax: 27-12-3422-713.

27-31 July AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC. ANNUAL MEETING, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Contact: APS, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. Phone: 01-612-454-7250. Fax: 01-612-454-0766. E-mail: zzz6882@vz.cis.umn.edu.

12 August-20 September. INTERNATIONAL COURSE ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI OF AGRICULTURAL & ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE, Egham, UK. Contact: S. Groundwater, International Mycological Institute, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey TW20 9TY, UK. Phone: 44-1784-470111. Fax: 44-1784-470909. E-mail: s.groundwater@cabi.org.

25-31 August 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF ENTOMOLOGY, Palazzo dei Congressi, Florence, ITALY. Science program includes 26 sections. Contact: O.I.C., Via A. La Marmora 24, 50121 Florence, ITALY. Fax: 39-55-500-1912. Phone: 39-55-500-0631.

(no date) August 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA, Madras, INDIA. Contact: A. Mahadevan, Centre for Advanced Study in Botany, Univ. of Madras, Guindy Campus, Madras 600 025, INDIA. Fax: 91-4456-6693.

9-11 September IOBC INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, "TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL: FROM RESEARCH TO PRACTICE," Montpellier, FRANCE. Sponsored by The Council of the global International Organization for Biological Control. Contact: J.P. Aeschlimann, CSIRO Biological Control Unit, Campus de Baillarguet, 34980 Montferrier-sur-Lez, FRANCE. E-mail: aeschlim@cypres.montpellier.inra.fr. Fax: 33-67-599-040.

9-11 September ADVANCES IN THE CHEMISTRY OF CROP PROTECTION, Cambridge, UK. Contact: Society of Chemical Industry, 14/15 Belgrave Square, London, SW1X 8PS, UK. Phone: 44-171-235-3681. Fax: 44-171-823-1698.

16-20 September 1ST WORLD CONGRESS ON ALLELOPATHY, Cadiz, SPAIN, International Allelopathy Soc. (newly formed, in INDIA, in September 1994). Contact: F.A. Macias, IAS, Dept. of Organic Chem., Fac. of Sci., Univ. of Cadiz, Apdo. 40, 11510 Puerto Real-Cadiz, SPAIN. Fax: 34-56-834924. Phone: 34-56-830217. E-mail: famacias@galeon.uca.es.

30 September-3 October 11TH AUSTRALIAN WEEDS CONFERENCE, Melbourne Univ., Melbourne, AUSTRALIA. Contact: Weed Sci. Soc. of Victoria, PO Box 987, Frankston, VIC 3199, AUSTRALIA.

# 5-9 October ANNUAL MEETING, ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA, Lord Beaverbrook Hotel, Fredericton, N.B., CANADA. Contact: J. Sweeney, Canadian Forest Service-Maritimes, PO Box 4000, Fredericton, N.B., E3B 5P7, CANADA. Phone: 1-506-452-3250. Fax: 1-506-452-3525. E-mail: JSweeney@FCMr.forestry.ca.

14-16 October INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ECOTOXICOLOGY: PESTICIDES & BENEFICIAL ORGANISMS, Cardiff International Arena, Wales, UK. Contact: P. McEwen, Welsh Pest Management Forum, PO Box 915, Cardiff CF1 3TL, UK. Fax: 44-222-450-538. E-mail: SABPKM1@cardiff.ac.uk.

(no date) November AFRO-ASIAN SOCIETY OF NEMATOLOGISTS, 3RD INTERNATIONAL NEMATOLOGY CONFERENCE, Coimbatore, INDIA. Contact: U.K. Mehta, Dept. of Nematology, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu 641 007, INDIA. Fax: 91-422-445611. Phone: 91-422-441179.

4-6 December 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PESTS IN AGRICULTURE, Montpellier, FRANCE. Contact: ANPP, 6 Blvd. de la Bastille, F-75012 Paris, FRANCE.

# 8-12 December ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA ANNUAL MEETING, Galt House, Louisville, KY, USA. Contact: ESA, 9301 Annapolis Rd., Suite 300, Lanham, MD 20706, USA. Phone: 1-301-731-4535. Fax: 1-301-731-4538. E-mail: pubs@entsoc.org.

1997 2-6 February WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA ANNUAL MEETING, Orlando, FL, USA. Contact: WSSA, 1508 W. University Ave., Champaign, IL 61821-3133, USA. Phone: 1-217-352-4212. 29-31 May INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ACREMONIUM/GRASS INTERACTIONS, Atlanta, GA, USA. Contact: N.S. Hill, Dept. of Agronomy, Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.


9-13 August AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING, Rochester, NY, USA. Contact: APS, 3340 Pilot Knob Road, St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. Phone: 1-612-454-7250. Fax: 1-612-454-0766. E-mail: zzz6882@vz.cis.umn.edu.

# 8-12 December ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA ANNUAL MEE ING, Galt House, Louisville, KY, USA. Contact: D. Voegtlin, Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E. Peabody, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Phone: 1-217-244-2152.

(no date) 7TH INTERNATIONAL VERTICILLIUM SYMPOSIUM, Athens, GREECE. Contact: R.C. Rowe, Dept. of Plant Pathology, Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH 44691, USA. E-mail: rowe.4@osu.edu. Fax: 1-216-263-3841.

IPMnet Sponsor IPMnet, a Global IPM Information Service, is sponsored, produced, and provided (without cost to recipients) by the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP). The Consortium, 12 educational/research institutions with strong interests in development, research, and productive application of rational crop protection and pest management, has been an international presence for over 20 years. Current members are: Univ. of California, Cornell Univ., Univ. of Florida, Univ. of Hawaii, Univ. of Illinois, Univ. of Minnesota, North Carolina State Univ., Oregon State Univ., Univ. of Puerto Rico, Purdue Univ., Texas A&M Univ., and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

R.E. Ford (Univ. of Illinois) chairs CICP's Board of Directors, G. Teetes (Texas A&M Univ.) is vice chairman and treasurer, and G.A. Schaefers (Cornell Univ.) serves as executive director. The Consortium maintains an administrative office at:

CICP, Cornell Univ., NYSAES, Geneva, NY 14456-0462, USA. E-mail: cicp@cornell.edu. Phone: 01-315-787-2252.

IPMnet's Web page and computer server are administered by R.E. Stinner (North Carolina State Univ.). E-mail: CIPM@ncsu.edu.

The IPMnet NEWS .....is sponsored, produced, and provided by CICP. Mention of specific products, processes, institutions, organizations, or individuals in the IPMnet NEWS does not imply support nor criticism by CICP, nor any individual associated with CICP, nor any of its member institutions. Information in IPMnet NEWS may be reprinted or quoted providing the IPMnet NEWS is identified as the source.

CICP Newsletter Advisory Committe

J.D. Harper, chair - JAMES_HARPER@ncsu.edu A. Alvarez - ALVAREZ@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu D. Dickson - DWD@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu M. Kogan, ex-officio - KOGANM@bcc.orst.edu G. Schaefers, ex-officio - GEORGE_SCHAEFERS@cornell.

Contributions to the IPMnet NEWS ..... are encouraged from individuals, organizations, and institutions engaged in any aspect of crop protection, and especially IPM. Short items describing experiences, successes, problems, and solutions are welcome. So too are questions, recommendations, viewpoints (pro and con), and IPM-related opinion statements.

A.E. Deutsch. IPMnet NEWS Coordinator/Editor

Communications to the IPMnet NEWS

..... may be sent to any of the following: E-mail: IPMnetNUZ@bcc.orst.edu Fax: 1-541-737-3080 Postal: IPMnet NEWS

c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA Phone: 1-541-737-6275

This mosaic version of IPMnet NEWS was marked up by J. E. Bacheler for the Center for IPM. The Center takes full responsibility for the appearance of this document.
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