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April 1996, Issue no. 28
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

I. IPM NEWS / APPLICATIONS international IPM news, and application of IPM techniques and programs. Old World Pest Invades Caribbean An insect found in many parts of the "old world" arrived in the Caribbean in 1993 where it has no natural enemies, caused extensive damage to horticultural production on Grenada, spread to neighboring Trinidad, and most recently has been confirmed on St. Kitts. The pest was identified as Maconellicoccus hirsutus, or pink mealybug (PMB). Applying selective pesticides and burning affected material offered only a short-term solution, according to the International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC) which, with support from FAO (U.N. Food and Agric. Organization), is collaborating with Caribbean ministry colleagues to develop a sustainable control program and introduce natural enemies of PMB.

Several species of Anagyrus encyrtid wasp have proved to be an effective biocontrol agent of PMB. In Egypt, releases of A. kamali helped control PMB with parasitization levels ranging from 66-98%. The PMB, accidentally introduced into Hawaii in 1983, has been controlled there by A. kamali and another Anagyrus species, which were apparently introduced at the same time as their host. IIBC specialists note that, as an internal parasitoid with a strong preference for mealybugs in general and the PMB in particular, A. kamali will not pose a risk to non-target organisms and is the logical choice for the Caribbean.

Live wasps were hand-carried to Grenada in October 1995 and are currently being multiplied on established mealybug cultures in an insectary. Grenadian Ministry of Agriculture staff members are being trained in rearing methods; they conducted the first pilot field release of 1,000 wasp adults in November 1995, will monitor the wasp's adaptation to the Grenadian environment, and will assess the impact of A. kamali on PMB populations.

The joint program also is devising plans to train farmers and agricultural industries in how to integrate biological control into cropping systems and reduce sole reliance on chemical methods. FMI: T. Cross, e-mail: T.Cross@CABI.org. (Thanks to CABI-IIBC's S. Williamson for providing information for this article).

Multi-national Effort Targets IPM A multi-national regional program sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of State (under the Middle East Peace Process Multilateral Working Group for the Environment) seeks to enhance IPM implementation in greenhouse production in the Jordan Valley north of the Dead Sea and other Middle Eastern agricultural areas as well as reduce health risks related to pesticide usage. The effort spans portion of Egypt, Jordan, and Israel, as well as the Palestinian Authority, and involves research and extension cooperators from both the private and public sectors of each entity, plus the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Currently five target areas have been identified. Early activities, focus on Bemisia tabaci and include scouting training, pesticide resistance monitoring, and establishment of a communication network with a component for delivering information to producers. FMI: E. Herrera, USDA/FAS/ICD/RSED, Room 3222 S.B, Washington, DC 20250, USA E-mail: eherrera@ag.gov Fax: 1-202-690-0892 Phone: 1-202-720-0469

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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

II. IPM MEDLEY general information, publications of interests, and other information and resources related to IPM Team Produces Urban IPM Educational Materials Collaboration between a team of U.S. extension professionals and research scientists in the State of Florida, with support from the federal government and input from communities, paid off with development of an impressive and extensive set of IPM educational materials for urban and commercial horticulture. Reaction among other IPM professionals suggests that the joint Florida-federal effort ranks as one of the most thorough urban IPM information efforts to date, and that it establishes high new organization, content, and visual standards for IPM educational materials.

The overall package contains three educational modules, eac neatly enclosed in a colorful, clearly identified cardboard carrier with built-in handle. The three modules address: Commercial Horticulture IPM, Landscape Horticulture IPM, and Structural IPM. The each module's materials videos, 35mm slides, manuals, illustrated flash cards, computer software, and posters are unique. Each module also includes an "IPM Cooperator" sticker, and, in one case, specially designed insect management book markers for a young audience.

The packages were produced at the Univ. of Florida through the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) in cooperation with the Entomology and Nematology Dept. P.G. Koehler and G.J. Cashion spearheaded the effort. Included information focuses primarily on insect pests with less emphasis on diseases and nematodes, and only a brief mention of weed management.

FMI: IPM Package, PO Box 110620, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA E-mail: pgk@gnv.ifas.ufl.edu Phone: 1-904-392-1901 Fax: 1-904-392-0190

Remove Weed Seed to Decrease Pressure Rather than increase weed pressure in his fields by allowing separated weed seeds to fall back onto the field as his combine harvester passes, a Canadian farmer modified his combine to not only collect the weed seeds, but then pneumatically transfer them to a towed-behind forage cart which can be emptied later in a composting area well away from the cropping site. Ontario Province grower G. Reicheld said that, "many farmers probably don't want to bother with pulling a wagon behind a combine." However, he noted that the build-up of herbicide residues coupled with increasing environmental concerns will probably require growers to follow a similar practice in the future.

excerpted from: FARM SHOW, 20(2), March-April 1996.

IPMporium .....Scientists are finding that various parasitic wasp species have their own, differing seasonal niches when they are most effective as predators, a key to successfully using them in biocontrol programs. ......Hewlett-Packard Co. says its Supercritical Fluid Extractor method provides a cheaper, faster, and less labor-intensive method than current manual-extraction techniques for extracting pesticides from fruits and vegetables, according to THE OREGON SCIENTIST, Spring 1996.

.....A 2-year study in California's Imperial Valley concluded that the pest silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) is not exhibiting a trend toward higher pesticide resistance levels.

.....The predacious Rodolia ladybird has achieved "spectacular and apparently lasting success" as a biological control of the breadfruit mealybug (Icerya aegyptiaca) that was devastating breadfruit (a staple food) on atolls in the Federated States of Micronesia, according to the Australian Center for International Agricultural Research.

QUOTES "To MANAGE insects, weeds, and organisms that cause plant diseases rather than obliterate them is to take a different view of agriculture, not as conqueror of nature but rather as a contolled subset of its surrounding environment. "IPM practices are founded on sensitivity to natural patterns and supported by a wealth of data that describes the interactions of pests, host species, and environment.

"IPM also favors [in addition to biocontrol, species selection and management] knowledge-driven chemical applications that target specific insects, weed species, and disease-causing organisms with minimal amounts of pesticidesprecisely at the point in their life cycles when scientists have shown them to be most vulnerable."

excerpted from FORUM, "Pests Won't Concede: Here's How We Deal," by R.M. Faust, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture National Program Leader, Field and Horticultural Crops, Entomology; AGRIC. RESEARCH, 44(1), January 1996.


IPMnet NEWS wants to mention any publication related to or focused on IPM. To assure coverage, please send a review copy of the publication, with background information where to obtain copies, data about the author/editor(s), costs, and any other particulars or descriptive materials to:

IPMnet NEWS, c/o Integrated Plant Protection Center 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-2915, USA After review, materials will be cataloged into the joint CICP/IPPC international IPM and crop protection literature collection (which the worldwide IPM/crop protection community is welcome to use) or returned if so requested.

Pesticide Impact Assessments One of the most recent federally commissioned reports on pesticide assessment in the U.S. is THE BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF PEST MANAGEMENT IN RICE, by J.P. Spradley and T.E. Windham, Extension Specialists, Univ. of Arkansas. The authors conducted a study in four major rice-producing states and found widespread practice of IPM, as well as the need to continue developing various pest management alternatives. An interesting sidelight: lists of problem weeds in rice runs double that of problem diseases or problem insects. The 1995, 289-page publication (doc. no. 2-CA-95) is available from: National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, ARS, 324 Admin. Bldg., Washington, DC 20250, USA.

Other older titles published through this same program include:

THE PUBLIC & PESTICIDES, EXPLORING THE INTERFACE, 1993, Ohio State Univ. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE USE ON CRANBERRY, 1994, #2-CA-94. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE USE ON GRAIN SORGHUM, 1994, #3-CA-94. BIOLOGIC AND ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF PESTICIDE USE ON CORN AND SOYBEANS, 1995, #1-CA-95. Regional IPM Highlighted A beautifully produced, informative 16-page publication issued in early 1996 highlights efforts to increase IPM adoption in the 12 states that comprise the U.S. north central region. Each state contributed a short item explaining an IPM practice or approach that was achieving it's goals, from managing potato virus to reducing nematode-caused losses in soybeans. Copies are free. Request publication NCR 586, from: Extension Distribution Center, 119 Printing/Publications, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011, USA. Phone: 1-515-294-5247. Or, FMI, contact: S. Brown, Coordinator sorrel@iastate.edu

Weed Management in SE Asia WEEDWATCHER, a periodical newsletter published by the Southeast Asian Weed Information Center, recently received a grant-in-aid from the Government of Indonesia. The long-running publication offers a variety of articles concerning weed management in the region. FMI: WEEDWATCHER, PO Box 116, Bogor 16001, INDONESIA. Fax: 62-0251-326-851. IPM Project Newsletter A jointly sponsored project focused on mating disruption to manage codling moth in the U.S. Pacific northwest region now publishes AREAWIDE IPM UPDATE, a free periodic newsletter. The first issue, dated 15 March 1996, offered articles on: "Seclecting Sites for Mating Disruption," and a brief history of the project. FMI: T. Alway, editor, e-mail: alway@coopext.cahe.wsu.edu Phone: 1-509-664-5540 Fax: 1-509-664-5561 New USDA Newsletter Launched In 1995, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture launched a periodic newsletter, METHYL BROMIDE ALTERNATIVES, containing a variety of reports, presentations, position statements, and resources related to its title. The free, professionally designed publication is available from: USDA, ARS, Information Staff, 6303 Ivy Lane, Room 444, Greenbelt, MD 20770, USA E-mail: dstanley@ag.gov Fax: 1-301-344-2311 Phone: 1-301-344-2963 Off the Book Shelf In a four-color catalog printed in late 1995, the British Crop Protection Council (BCPC), lists the full range of books, proceedings, handbooks, and guides that it currently offers. An example of recent titles is: Proceedings No. 63, INTEGRATED CROP PROTECTION: TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY?, covering a September 1995 symposium that included international authorities. For free copies of the catalog, contact: BCPC Publications Sales, Bear Farm, Binfield, Bracknell, Berkshire RG42 5QE, U.K. Phone: 44-1734-342727 Fax: 44-1734-341998 Vol. 616 in the American Chemical Society Symposium series is LIGHT-ACTIVATED PEST CONTROL, 1995, 279-pgs, 18 chapters, edited by Heitz, J.R., and K.R. Downum. ACS, Dept. 225, 1155 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA.

In Press On the way: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT, an addition to the Biotechnology in Agriculture Series from CAB International, edited by the World Bank's G.J. Persley. Approx. 512-pgs, nine sections, by a roster of international authorityauthors. Inquiries: CAB International, e-mail: cabi@cabi.org

RESOURCES IPM FOR LANDSCAPE/URBAN USE A web site introduced in 1995 provides current research-based plant health care and IPM information to landscape professionals and the public. Jointly developed by the Univ. of Illinois and the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA), the site, known as "ISA On-Line," is designed to support those in the landscape industry who are developing or implementing IPM. ISA On-Line's address is: www.ag.uiuc.edu from: IPM in the North Central States.

PLANT PATH WEB SITE BEGUN The American Phytopathological Society (APS) has launched APSnet, a web-based activity with both public access services and three levels of more extensive subscriber services ranging from general plant pathology information to on-line delivery of three scholarly journals. The URL is:

www.scisoc.org A free descriptive brochure is available that enumerates benefits of using APSnet and includes a subscription form. To request a brochure, contact: M. Mullin, APSnet, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA E-mail: apsnet@scisoc.org Phone: 1-612-454-7250 Fax: 1-612-454-0766

THE WORLD OF WEBS In the latest issue of INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT REVIEWS [1(2)], P. McEwen reports on his effort to gather critical information for over 30 listservers and other electronic sources related to IPM information. Contact details and activity descriptions are presented in alpha order. Dr. McEwen can be contacted at: SABPKM1@cardiff.ac.uk PESTICIDE INFORMATION SOURCE Oregon State Univ. (USA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsor and operate the National Pesticide Telecommunications Network (NTPN) offering a toll-free telephone source for objective, science-based information about a wide variety of pesticide related subjects. Staffed by trained specialists, NPTN is a source of factual chemical, health, and environmental information about more than 600 pesticidal active ingredients found in over 50,000 products registered in the U.S. since 1947. The Network also can provide information about antimicrobials (sanitizers, disinfectants, and sterilants). NPTN operates from 6:30 AM-4:30 PM U.S. Pacific time, Monday-Friday. The (domestic) toll free line is: 1-800-858-7378 Phone: 1-541-737-0761 FMI: e-mail: millert@oes.orst.edu

SITE SPECIFIC WEATHER DATA A firm that provides a range of weather-related information is starting its fourth year of service to U.S. agriculture. SkyBit, Inc. can develop site-specific weather summaries, hourly data, and forecasts, in addition to other useful products that help producers make more informed decisions on, for instance, pest management strategies. Results are delivered by fax or e-mail. FMI: SkyBit, Inc., PO Box 10, Boalsburg, PA 16827-0010, USA. E-mail: eweather@meso.com Phone: 1-800-454-2266 Fax: 1-814-466-6691 IPM WEB PAGE (address corrected) The Univ. of California statewide IPM program's web page URL shown in IPMnet NEWS #27, March, was incorrect. It should have been:

www.ipm.ucdavis.edu VIDEO: MANAGING HERBICIDE RESISTANCE A free 18-minute VHS video tape produced by a major international ag chem manufacturer deals with weeds' resistance to herbicides and suggests strategies for reducing or avoiding resistance. WEED RESISTANCEMAPPING OUT YOUR WEED CONTROL, no. #1J006, is available through: Highest Profit Corp., 10933 Seaglades Dr., Pensacola, FL 32507-1927, USA. Phone: 1-904-492-7362 Fax: 1-904-492-0270 SITE FOR INSECT PESTS OF VEGETABLES The Univ. of Minnesota (USA) has developed a Web site called "Veg-Net: A Vegetable IPM Resource," primarily focused on management of insect pests. The site is frequently revised to include late information and provides links to other broader IPM Web sites. It has support from the Minnesota Extension Service and the U.S. National IPM Initiative. The URL is: www.mes.umn.edu

POSITION The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's research arm is recruiting for a research biochemist/plant physiologist/entomologist at the postdoctoral research associate level for a 2-year appointment to conduct research on the "biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with differential responses of Russian wheat aphid (RWA) resistant and susceptible barleys elicited by RWA feeding." The position, RA-96-25, will locate in Stillwater, OK (USA) and "analyze processes involved in the production of collapsed, autofluorescent cells associated with aphid feeding in RWA-resistant barley leaves." Details from: D.R. Porter, e-mail: DRP@ag.gov Or contact: D. McCourt, USDA/ARS, 6305 Ivy Lane, Room 337, Greenbelt, MD 20770-1435, USA Phone: 1-301-344-1504
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

III. RESEARCH REVIEW research and findings related to IPM. This Month's Noted Research Papers grouped by broad subject area Plant Pathology "An Expert System for Tomato Diseases," Yialouris, C.P., and A.B. Sideridis. COMPUTERS AND ELEC. IN AGRIC., 14(1), 61-76, January 1996.

"Combination of Trichoderma koningii with Fluorescent Pseudomo- nads for Control of Take-all on Wheat," Duffy, B.K., et al. PHYTOPATH., 86(2), 188-194, February 1996.

"Control of Phytophthora Diseases of Tree Crops Using Trunk-injected Phosphonates," Guest, D.I., et al. HORT. REV. 17, ed. Janick, J., 299-330, 1995.

"Development of Leaf Anthracnose and its Effect on Yield and Grain Weight of Sorghum in West Africa," Thomas, M.D., et al. PLANT DIS., 80(2), 151-153, February 1996.

"Host Genes and Transgenes that Confer Resistance to a Scottish Isolate of Potato Leafroll Virus are also Effective Against a Peruvian Isolate," Barker, H. POT. RESCH., 38(3), 291-296, 1995.

"New Sources of Resistance in Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis) to Crucifer Downy Mildew Caused by Peronospora parasitica," Silue, D., et al. JRNL. OF PHYTOPATH., 143(11-12), 659-662, November-December 1995.

"Occurrence and Control of Diseases on Fruit Trees in Uruguay," Tanaka, H., et al. AGROCHEM. JAPAN, 67, 23-26, December 1995.

"Sensitivity of the Conidia of Plant Pathogenic Fungi to Gamma-rays, Electron Particles and X-ray (Bremsstrahlung) Irradiation," Lebaijuri, M., et al. WORLD JRNL. OF MICROBIO., & BIOTECH., 11(6), 610-614, November 1995.

"Survey of Groundnut Virus Diseases in Pakistan," Delfosse, P., et al. INTL. ARACHIS NEWSLTR., 15, 51-52, 1995.

Weed Management

"Compatibility and Efficiency of In-row Cultivation for Weed Management in Corn (Zea mays)," Vangessel, M.J., et al. WEED TECH., 9(4), 754-760, October-December 1995.

"Cropping Systems Control Winter Annual Grass Weeds in Winter Wheat," Lyon, D.J., and D.D. Baltensperger. JRNL. OF PROD. AGRIC., 8(4), 535-539, October-December 1995.

"Ecological Effects of the Invasive Weed Species Senecio jacobaea L. (ragwort) in a New Zealand Pasture," Wardie, D.A., et al. AGRIC., ECOSYST., & ENVIRON., 56(1), 19-28, November 1995.

"Influence of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Infection on the Intraspecific Competitive Ability and Fitness of Purslane (Portulaca oleracea)," Friess, N., and J. Maillet. NEW PHYTOL., 132(1), 103-112, January 1996.

"Integrated Use of Herbicides and Pathogens for Submersed Plant Control," Netherland, M.D., and J.F. Shearer. AQUATIC PLT. CONTROL RESCH. PROG., Rept. A-95-4, 7-13, September 1995.

"Weed Competition in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)," Qasem, J.R. JRNL. OF HORT. SCI., 71(1), 41-48, January 1996.

"Witchweed, a Parasite of African Cereal Crops: Biology and Control Methods - Review," Olivier, A. (in French). AGRONOMIE, 15(9-10), 517-526, 1995.


"Bacillus thuringiensis, a Biocontrol Agent for Major Tea Pests," Unnamalai, N., and V. Sekar. CURR. SCI., 69(11), 939-940, December 1995.

"Biological Control of Aphis gossypii Glover on Cucurbits by a Parasitic Wasp Trioxys indicus Subba Rao & Sharma," Singh, R., and S.N. Rao. BIOL. AGRIC. & HORT., 12(3), 227-236, 1995.

"Effects of Field-weathered Residues of Insect Growth Regulators on some Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of Economic Importance as Biocontrol Agents," Hattingh, V., and B. Tate. BULL. OF ENTO. RESCH., 85(4), 489-494, December 1995.

"Effect of Landscape Structure on Parasitoid Diversity and Parasitism in Agroecosystems," Marino, P.C., and D.A. Landis. ECOLOG. APPLIC., 6(1), 276-284, February 1996.

"Host Selection and Host Range of the Flower-feeding Weevil, Coelocephalapion pigrae, a Potential Biological Control Agent of Mimosa pigra," Heard, T.A., and I.W. Forno. BIO. CONTRL., 6(1), 83-95, February 1996.

"Natural Enemies of Mimosa pigra and M. berlandieri (Mimosaceae) and Prospects for Biological Control of M. pigra," Harley, K., et al. ENVIRON. ENTOMOL., 24(6), 1664-1678, December 1995.

"Relative Toxicity of Three Insecticides to Acanthaspis pedestris stal, a Potential Predator of Insect Pests (Insecta: Heteroptera: Reduviidae)," Ambrose, D.P., and P.J.E. Geroge. JRNL. OF ADV. ZOO., 16(2), 88-91, December 1995.

"Status of Bemisia tabaci in the Mediterranean Countries: Opportunities for Biological Control," Gerling, D. BIO. CONTRL., 6(1), 11-22, February 1996.


"Root-lesion Nematode (Pratylenchus thornei) Limits Response of Wheat but not Barley to Stored Soil Moisture in the Hermitage Long-term Tillage Experiment," Thompson, J.P., et al. AUSTRL. JRNL. OF EXPER. AGRIC., 35(7), 1049-1056, 1995.

"The Influence of the Nematode Meloidogyne incognita on Competition Between Solanum nigrum and Tomato," Ponce, R.G., et al. WEED RESCH., 35(6), 437-444, December 1995.


"Characterization of Baculovirus Insecticides Expressing Tailored Bacillus thuringiensis CrylA(b) Crystal Proteins," Martens, J.W.M., et al. JRNL. OF INVERT. PATH., 66(3), 249-257, November 1995.

"Effect of Insecticides on Pest Incidence in Summer Greengram (Phaseolus radiatus)," Borah, R.K. IND. JRNL. OF AGRIC. SCI., 65(2), 913-915, December 1995.

"Effects of Malathion Bait Sprays on Nontarget Insects Associated with Corn in Western Kauai, Hawaii," Messing, R.H., et al. JRNL. OF AGRIC. ENTOMOL., 12(4), 255-266, October 1995.

"Hypersensitive Reaction and Induced Resistance in Rice Against the Asian Rice Gall Midge Orseolia oryzae," Bentur, J.S., and M.B. Kalode. ENTOMO. EXP. ET APPLICATA, 78(1), 77-82, January 1996.

"Identification of Sex Attractant Pheromone Components of the Tussock Moth, Euproctis taiwana (Shiraki) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)," Yasuda, T., et al. JRNL. OF CHEM. ECOL., 21(11), 1813-1822, November 1995.

"Insecticidal Properties of Plant Lectins: Their Potential in Plant Protection," Gatehouse, A.M.R. LECTINS, BIOMEDICAL PERSPECTIVES, Pusztai, A., and S. Bardocz, eds, Taylor and Francis, 331-pgs., 1995.

"Major Insect Pests of Some Vegetable Crops and the Present Status of Chemical-resistance of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella L. in Thailand," Kuwahara, M., and P. Keinmeesuke. AGROCHEM. JAPAN, 67, 12-15, December 1995.

"Plants Used in Controlling the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller)," Das, G.P. CROP PROT., 14(8), 631-636, December 1995.

"Toxicity of Bacillus thuriengiensis spore and crystal protein to resistant diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella)," Tang, J.D., et al. APPL. AND ENVIRON. MICROBIO., 62(2), 564-582, February 1996.

Vertebrate Management

"Sex-biased Response of Raccoons (Procyon lotor) to Live Traps," Gehrt, S.D., and E.K. Fritzell. AMER. MID. NAT., 135(1), 23-32, January 1996.

IPM General

"Pest Management in Tropical Rice Ecosystems: New Paradigms for Research," Heong, K.L. Paper presented at: International Workshop on the Pest Management Strategies in Asian Monsoon Agroecosystem, 15-18 November 1995, Kumamoto, JAPAN.

"Pests: Sustained Harvest Versus Eradication," Wilman, E.A. JRNL. OF ENVIRON. MGMT., 46(2), 139-148, February 1996.

"Survey of Integrated Pest Management Practices in Central Illinois," Czapar, G.F., et al. JRNL. OF PROD. AGRIC., 8(4), 483-485, October-December 1995.

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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

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