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April 2003, Issue no. 112
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

FAO Strengthens Pesticide Code

Late in 2002 the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations adopted an extensive, revised, and strengthened International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides as a set of "voluntary standards of conduct for all public and private entities in or associated with the distribution and use of pesticides." The resulting 35-page document which can be downloaded from www.fao.org is intended particularly for instances "where there is inadequate or no national legislation to regulate pesticides," especially since FAO officials believe that "pesticide use will continue to be a major factor in agricultural production." The Code is intended "for use within the context of national legislation," and is so designed that "government authorities, pesticide manufacturers, those engaged in trade and any citizens concerned may judge whether their proposed actions and the actions of others constitute acceptable practices." With references to over 50 supporting documents and sources, the revised code includes 12 articles and other material to definitively assure that, if and when pesticides are deployed, they "are used effectively and efficiently for the improvement of agricultural production and of human, animal and plant health." The revised document clearly incorporates the concept of, and is intended to promote, IPM. The same "Pesticide Management Group" page leading to the Code also offers other useful documentation concerning all aspects of pesticide application, handling, storage, and disposal. GLOBAL IPM NOTES

After several years, New Zealand researchers, found Pempelia genistella (colonial hard shoot moth), a biocontrol agent of Ulex europaeus (gorse), was now thriving at one release site.*> L. Hayes, HayesL@landcareresearch.co.nz . A research group in California has demonstrated that a single Bt protein can be toxic to Caenorhabditis elegans(a nematode). *> R. V.Aroian, RAroian@ucsd.edu. Brazilian researchers developed a transgenic Phaseolus vulgaris (dry bean) cultivar that tolerates the herbicide glufosinate ammonium. *> F.J.L. Aragao, Aragao@cenargen.embrapa.br. A trial in Vietnamese flooded rice fields determined that fish were an ineffective method of controlling plant- and leaf-hoppers. *> N. Vroman, aquabio@bio.kuleuven.ac.be. Hair from Canis latrans (coyote) was shown to deter feeding of Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) at discrete sites. *> T.W. Seamans, Thomas.W.Seamans@usda.gov
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

What They're Saying Comments in Print

Of Glyphosate and Silver Bullets: Taking issue with the expanding usage of the herbicide glyphosate triggered by so-called "Roundup Ready" genetically modified crops and the subsequent appearance of glyphosate resistant weed species, the New York Times, perhaps with a little external nudge, editorialized that "Industrial agriculture is always searching for a silver bullet, for-getting that eventually a silver bullet misfires." [Lone Ranger, please note. Ed.]

Strategy Against a Maize Pest Insect:

From another perspective, governmental approval for Bt-maize that resists a variety of corn rootworm beetles (Diabrotica virgifera, D. barberi, etc.) was deemed "A smart, safe decision, one which should benefit corn growers and corn consumers alike," according to a Washington Post editorial. The Post waxed enthusiastic over the anticipated reduction in insecticide application

GM Advantages Build Over Time

A similar view appeared in the paper "Long-term Regional Suppression of Pink Bollworm by Bacillus thuringiensis Cotton," printed in the Proceedings of the National Acad. of Science (USA). Y. Carriere and colleagues noted that their findings "suggest that long-term regional pest suppression after deployment of Bt crops may also contribute to reducing the need for insecticide sprays. "

Two Sides of the Situation

Another trio of researchers conducted a review of 250 publications examining some of the concerns raised about the impacts of GM crops within the context of ecological risk assessment and published the results in The Plant Journal. "For GM crops," wrote A.J. Conner and coworkers," the precautionary principle should work both ways. The risk of using GM crops should be balanced against the risks of using alternative solutions including the currently used technology."

PUBLICATIONS PERUSED (2 in this issue)

MANAGING SOLANACEOUS CROP PESTS A handsome newer (2002) publication, EGGPLANT, PEPPER, AND TOMATO PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR GUAM, devotes fully one-third of its 188 pages to the wide variety of pests that plague these three key solanaceous crops. Editors R. Schlub and L. Yudin follow a straightforward, factual style for the text, and include a 42-photo, full-color section, plus many additional black/white illustrations scattered throughout the softbound, 17-chapter work. While specific to conditions on Guam, presented information will have much wider geographic application. *> Guam Cooperative Extension, CALS, UOG Station, Mangilao, Guam 96923, USA. Fax: 1-671-734-6842. Phone: 1-671-735-2000. DabidNelson@hotmail.com .


The Taiwan-based Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) recently issued its ANNUAL REPORT 2001 in which a major project is all-encompassingly labeled "Integrated Insect and Disease Management (IPM) [sic. ed.] for Environment-Friendly Production of Safe Vegetables." Within this framework, AVRDC staff members are working with technologies that emphasize biological, cultural, and mechanical tactics while minimizing pesticide application. In another thrust discussed in the AVRDC ANNUAL REPORT 2001, vegetable breeding research aims for higher levels of disease resistance in cultivars. *> AVRDC, PO Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan 741, ROC. Fax: 886-6-583-0009.AVRDCbox@netra.avrdc.org.tw .


CONTROL AT A SNAIL'S PACE Many Pacific Ocean nations suffer from periodic explosions of Achatina fulica Bow ditch (giant African snail), a hungry, vegetable-eating mollusc native to East Africa that can reach a length of 20cm (8in.) but more commonly ranges from 5-10cm (2-4in.). A 4-page, 1999 color, pest advisory leaflet, GIANT AFRICAN SNAIL, published by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community's Plant Protection Service, not only sets forth the pest's biology, but discusses a wide range of practical management and control measures. The document can be freely downloaded from: www.spc.int as can many other useful titles. *> SPC Plant Protection Service, Private Mail Bag, Suva, FIJI ISLANDS. PPS@spc.int.


The global federation that "represents the plant science industry," now known as CropLife, has published a 28-page booklet, INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT, THE WAY FORWARD FOR THE PLANT SCIENCE INDUSTRY, as a manifesto and statement of principle. The 2003 work covers basic components of an IPM strategy, the technologies and services required for IPM, and not surprisingly the role of the plant science industry in developing IPM strategies. A series of older published guidelines from CropLife stress safety and effective use of "crop protection products." Most of the titles can be freely downloaded from www.croplife.org . *> CropLife International, Ave. Louise 143, B-1050 Brussels, BELGIUM. Fax: 32-2-542-0419. CropLife@croplife.org . Phone: 32-2-542-0410.


Not many titles exclusively relate to organic agriculture, so it may be of interest that a 2001 treatise, PLANT PROTECTION CHALLENGES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION, focuses on the topic. Editors D.M. Suckling and M.R. Butcher address a wide range of sectors, from international market trends, policy and marketing issues, to research needs, in this 75-page, softbound work. *> Secretary, NZ Plant Protection Society, PO Box 60, Lincoln, Canterbury, NEW ZEALAND. Fax: 64-03-983-3904. Lois.McKay@agresearch.co.nz .


In 2002 the invasive species specialist group within the IUCN-World Conservation Union published TURNING THE TIDE: THE ERADICATION OF INVASIVE SPECIES, proceedings of a 2001 conference on eradication of island invading species. Editors C.R. Veitch and M.N. Clout include 52 papers and an additional 21 abstracts. The softbound work contains 414 pages. *> IUCN Publications Services, 219c Huntingdon Rd., Cambridge CB3 0DL, UK. books@iucn.org . Web: www.iucn.org . Fax: 44-1223-277175. Phone: 44-1223-277894.


PESTNET DEBUTS WEBSITE PestNet, an e-mail network focused on crop protection in nations of the Pacific and Southeast Asia, recently introduced an extended, easily navigated new website at: www.pestnet.org . Elements of the site include information for joining PestNet, a guide for contributors, a photo gallery (still with some teething problems), plus additional material. PestNet is designed to help provide rapid advice and information on regional identification and management of plant pests. The target audience broadly includes all who have an interest in the topic. There is no cost to join PestNet and participate in the information exchange. *> PestNet@yahoogroups.com .


The Australian Cotton Cooperative Research Centre (Cotton CRC) now offers WEEDpak, a comprehensive, practical guide for integrated management of weeds in cotton. The on-line resource has been compiled and distilled from more than a decade of research, and presents detailed information for more than 200 weed species. The material concentrates on integrated weed management and touches on a number of contemporary issues such as herbicide resistance, careful attention to field hygiene, and crop rotation, among others. Cotton CRC's executive officer noted that "The suite of integrated weed management principles outlined in the WEEDpak Guide will facilitate reduced dependence on herbicides, improve environmental management, lower costs, and lead to more sustainable weed control." While obviously established for Australian conditions, the presented information has much wider geographic usefulness and, though formally introduced recently, establishes a flexible body of information that can be readily updated as warranted. The WEEDpak project, found at: www , was coordinated by S.B. Johnson of the Cotton CRC and financed by industry.*> S.B. Johnson, Cotton CRC, Locked Bag 1000, Narrabri, NSW 2390, AUSTRALIA. StephenJ@mv.pi.csiro.au. Fax: 61-02-6799-1503. Phone: 61-02-6799-2438. thanks to S.B. Johnson for information; excerpted, with thanks, from the Cotton CRC website.

SIT FACILITIES LISTED The insect pest control group at the joint FAO/International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear techniques division has a long record of sterile insect technique (SIT) information dissemination. Among their most recent offerings is a new "World-Wide Directory of SIT Facilities (DIR-SIT)" listing information about all mass rearing facilities of sterile pest insects. Each entry contains pertinent facts about the facility and its specific activities, as well as contact details. The directory, which aims to help harmonize and establish international standards and guidelines for SIT, is an integral part of the "International Database on Insect Disinfestation and Sterilization" (IDIDAS) found at: www . *> A. Bakri, A.Bakri@iaea.org.

COORDINATING WEED MANAGEMENT Some fast growing weeds might mature before a reader finishes pronouncing "Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW)," but that should only add to the mystique of this in-formative (U.S.) website. The Committee was established in 1994 for "an unprecedented formal partnership between 16 federal agencies with invasive plant management and regulatory responsibilities" as a vehicle to coordinate information and management. Its website at FICMNEW.fws.gov is newer and offers links to funding grants, publications, strategies, and other arcana. *> M. Ielmini, FICMNEW Project Support Group, c/o Natl. Invasive Species Coordinator, USDA Forest Svc., 201 14th St., SW, Washington, DC 20250-1103, USA.


ABRADE AND WIPE Devices that directly apply non-selective herbicides to weeds (so called "weed wipers") have been on the market in numerous configurations for well over a decade. A relatively recent variant introduces a wrinkle in that the surface making contact with the targeted weed is rigid and covered with grit that abrades or scores the weed's exterior as it passes by. The abrading action inoculates the weed with herbicide and thus ensures a more effective impact on the plant. A 12-volt system tank fed, high pressure metering pump, and delivery tubing distributes viscous liquid herbicide to the application surface along a corrosion-resistant, grit-covered high strength beam or tube. The patented system is normally drip-free, unaffected by sloping ground surfaces (e.g., ditch banks), and not subject to becoming clogged by foreign matter. Applicators can vary in length, be positioned on vehicles to suit conditions, and can be easily mounted/dismounted. *> J. Moore, Weed/Sweep Systems, 555 Riviera Dr., Naples, FL 34103, USA. WeedSweep@cs.com . Phone: 1-239-261-1098. Web: www.weedsweep.com . PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES


Washington, DC, USA. * Perform a wide range of technical and administrative duties related to CSREES plant science programs (including IPM) in support of program leaders, including: design a variety of written and electronic materials; analyze technical plant science information; serve as second in command of certain programs; interact with research institutions; act as spokesperson for the agency as directed. * Requires: applicable and extensive education and experiential background; knowledge of the U.S. land-grant university system; effective communication skills; ability to organize, analyze, assess, and interpret scientific and other information. * Limited to U.S. citizens; pos. no. CSREES-S3M-4153. * Contact: USDA, ARS, Human Resources Div., Metro. Svcs. Branch, Mail Stop 0308, 1400 Independence Ave., SW, Washington, DC 20250-0308, USA. Fax: 1-202-690-2239. vacancy@ars.usda.gov.Web : www.reeusda.gov .


Lake Alfred, FL, USA. * Provide expertise and statewide leadership in citrus entomology, particularly insect IPM; 65 percent extension, 35 percent research; develop, introduce, and apply IPM information; effectively communicate with a wide range of publics; pursue extramural funding; recruit graduate students. * Requires: PhD in entomology; extensive experience in horticulture; ability to interact with a diverse population of stakeholders; superior communication skills. Position no. 919670. * Contact: C.W. McCoy, Citrus Rsch. and Educa. Ctr., 700 Experiment Stn. Rd., Lake Alfred, FL 33850-2299, USA. Fax: 1-863-956-4631. CWMy@lal.ufl.edu. Phone: 1-863-956-1151.Web: ipm.ifas.ufl.edu .


Kutztown, PA, USA. * Plan and implement experiments asking and answering fundamental questions concerning weed management in organic agricultural systems; disseminate findings to target clientele. * Requires: MSc (PhD preferred) in weed science; successful work experience; farming systems orientation; expertise in cover cropping methods; field experience; ability to plan and implement field research; communication skills ability to develop and make presentations; research supervision experience. * Contact: K. Wallace, The Rodale Institute, 611 Siegfriedale Rd., Kutztown, PA 19530, USA. Fax: 1-610-683-1431. Phone: 1-610-683-1428. Karen.Wallace@rodaleinst.org.


Weslaco, TX, USA. * Develop basic information on the biology, ecology, and management of Anthonomus grandis grandis(boll weevil) and other arthropod pests of row crops leading to development of area wide pest management strategies. * Requires: MSc or PhD in entomology; relevant entomological lab and field experience; and USA citizenship. * Contact (for application instructions): K.E. Wilcox, USDA-ARS-SPARC, Areawide Pest Management Research Unit, 2771 F & B Road, College Station, TX 77845-4966, USA. K-Wilcox1@tamu.edu . Fax: 1-979-260-9386. Phone: 1-979-260-9354. Web: apmru.usda.gov .
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM


HERBICIDE TOLERANCE PROVES BENEFICIAL In sugar beet production, weed management is both important and one of the more expensive inputs, at least based on current technology. However, in a recent paper, "Economic Consequences for UK Farmers of Growing GM Herbicide Tolerant Sugar Beet," M.J. May found that herbicide-tolerant crops drastically reduced the amount of herbicide used, significantly lowered production costs (both fixed and operating), and vastly softened environmental impacts. Herbicide application frequency dropped from four or five sprays per crop to one or two with an attendant 80 percent slash in material applied. Increases, up to seven-fold, in populations of various species of friendly invertebrates, a lessened threat to ground nesting birds, and decreased field travel, plus other benefits also could be expected by switching to herbicide tolerant sugar beet according to this study. *> M. May, Mike.May@bbsrc.ac.uk.

excerpted, with thanks, from ANNLS. OF APPLD. BIOL., 142(1), 41-48, February 2003.



"Comparing an IPM Pilot Program to a Traditional Cover Spray Program in Commercial Landscapes," Stewart, C.D.,et al * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 95(4), 789-796, August 2002. "Evaluation de Deux Methodes de Lutte Integree Contre les Ravageurs en Vergers d'Agrumes (Evaluation of Two IPM Methods to Control Main Pests in Citrus Orchards)," Benziane, T.,et al * JRNL. OF APPL. ENTOM., 127(1), 51-63, February 2003. Biocontrol

"A Simple Method to Estimate Percentage Parasitism when the Host and Parasitoid Phenologies are Unknown: A Statistical Approach," Ruiz-Narvaez, E., and N. Castro-Webb. * BIOCON., 48(1), 87-100, February 2003. "Incidence of Parasitoids and Parasitism of Bemisia tabaci(Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Numerous Crops," Simmons, A.M.,et al * EVIRON. ENTOM., 31(6), 1030-1036, December 2002. Phytopathology

"Integrating Host Resistance with Planting Date and Fungicide Seed Treatment to Manage FusariumWilt and so Increase Lentil Yields," Ahmed, S.,et al * INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 48(2), 121-125, April-June 2002. "Stripe Rust of Wheat and Barley in North America: A Retrospective Historical Review," Line, R.F. * ANNU. RE V.OF PLANT PATH., 40, 75-118, 2002. Weed Management

"Herbicide-tolerant Crops in Agriculture: Oilseed Rape as a Case Study," Senior, I.J., and P.J. Dale. * PLANT BREED., 121(2), 97-107, April 2002. "Predicting Weed Emergence: A Review of Approaches and Future Challenges," Grundy, A.C. * WEED RESRCH., 43(1), 1-11, February 2003. Entomology

"Impact of Alfalfa/Cotton Intercropping and Management on Some Aphid Predators in China," Lin, R.,et al * JRNL. OF APPL. ENTOM., 127(1), 33-36, February 2003. "Ten Years After the Arrival in Ghana of Larger Grain Borer: Farmers' Responses and Adoption of IPM Strategies," Addo, S.,et al. * INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 48(4), 315-325, October-December 2002. Special Bt Sub-section

"Behavior of Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae on Genetically Engineered Cotton," Gore, J.,et al * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 95(4), 763-769, August 2002. Nematology

"Effects of Tillage Practices on Entomopathogenic Nematodes in a Corn Agroecosystem," Millar, L.C., and M.E. Barbercheck. * BIOL. CONT., 25(1), 1-11, September 2002.
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An Information Trove

While hordes of research and extension specialists are aware that the U.S. established four Regional Pest Management Centers (soon to become IPM Centers?) several years ago, they may not be tuned in to the diverse array of information freely offered through the tightly linked set of websites under the Centers' banners. Starting with the base site at www.pmcenters.org , a reader can click on "Current Issues" for overviews of national legislation and policy as well as links to insect resistance and biotechnology.

Another mouse stroke on "News" offers an entree to several sub-pages such as "Pest Management News" which is an up-to-date compilation of topics almost all of which have "hot" leads to the original source of the information. Clearly evident is the site's neutral, science-oriented position toward various crop protection technologies, achievements, and problems.

Another click on "Pest Management Newsletters" opens up a list of more than 70 state and federal pest management newsletters. Many of these periodic news sources are specifically pest management related while others are only peripherally so.

And as if this wasn't a surfeit of material, readers will likely be most interested in information relating to their specific geographic region which can be easily accessed from the "mother" federal site. Each of the four regional sites incorporates a blend of region-specific items as well as links back to the national page. And, should there be information gaps, reader/users are invited to provide feedback to make an already extensive network of sites even more informative.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

2003 (N) 12-17 July * 5TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM, RUSSIAN SOCIETY OF NEMATOLOGISTS (English lang.), Vladivostok, RUSSIA. Contact: V. V.Yushin, Inst. of Marine Biol., Vladivostok 690041, RUSSIA. Yushin@fromru.com . Fax: 7-4232-310900.

(N) 11-14 August * 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT PROTECTION IN THE TROPICS, "Globalization and Plant Protection in Developing Economies," Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Contact: Secretary 6th ICPPT, c/o CABI-SEARC, PO Box 210, UPM Post, 43400 Serdang, Selangor DE, MALAYSIA. S.Soetikno@cabi.org . Fax: 60-3-8943-6400. Web: www.mapps.org.my

(N) 12-14 August * 56TH NEW ZEALAND PLANT PROTECTION CONFERENCE, Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND. Contact: L. McKay, Lois.McKay@agresearch.co.nz . Web: www.hortnet.co.nz .

(N) 08-09 September * BCPC SYMPOSIUMSLUGS AND SNAILS: AGRICULTURAL, VETERINARY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES, Canterbury, UK. Contact: G.B. Dussart, Ecol. Resch. Grp., Univ. College, N. Holmes Rd., Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU, UK. GBD1@cant.ac.uk . Fax: 44-0-1227-470442. Phone: 44-0-1227-767700. Web: www.bcpc.org [R] 21-24 June * date specified * 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON TOMATO DISEASES, Orlando, FL, USA. Contact: T. Momol, TMomol@ufl.edu . Phone: 1-850-875-7154. Web: plantdoctor.ifas.ufl.edu .

[R] 30 July-03 August * date corrected * AMERICAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING, Anaheim, CA, USA. Contact: APS, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. Fax: 1-612-454-0766. APS@scisoc.org . Web: www.apsnet.org .

2005 No NEW or REVISED entries.

2006 No NEW or REVISED entries.
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