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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


July 2003, Issue no. 115
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Learning Groups Benefit Growers

An impact survey conducted in 2002-03 by the joint Egyptian-German program to extend IPM to Egyptian fruit and vegetable farmers found that exposure to Farmer Learning Groups (FLG), a participatory extension approach modeled on the FAO's Farmer Field Schools, resulted in improved skills and knowledge for farmers, according to a new report.

The program, supported by the German Agency for Technical Assistance (GTZ), surveyed both physical and financial indicators as well as adoption rates of recommended IPM and cropping management practices. Farmers who had participated in FLGs were 45 percent more likely to implement IPM elements than those who had not come into contact with an FLG. A middle group, farmers living in the same village as those attending the FLG and benefitting from a "spill-over" effect, also practiced a higher degree of IPM than those without any contact.

The FLG-participating farmer group realized improved production rates, higher quality crops, and a 21 percent greater income level than farmers without any extension contact. Again, the farmers in the spillover category improved in comparison to the base group. Additionally, cost-benefit analyses prepared for the IPM project were clearly positive, particularly so when the "spill-over" affect was included. *> W. Gassert, 6, Michael Bakhoum St., Green Houses Bldg., Dokki, Cairo, EGYPT. Eml: ipm1@tedata.net.eg .

thanks to W. Gassert for information.

High Tech Weeder Shows Promise

A prototype video-guided, GPS-enhanced, herbicide-applying machine is under study in California as a way to increase the efficiency of chemical application and reduce the need for hand weeding in crops such as processing tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton that currently require intensive hand weeding or hand hoeing.

While numerous improved spraying devices have been developed in the past by various entities, the device under test at the Univ. of California at Davis is believed to be the first to utilize video technology, mathematical computations, and micro-spray needles combined and mounted on a field-tested robotic cultivator.

Increasing pressure from farm worker advocates to limit hand weeding and short-handle hoeing as being damaging to workers' backs is forcing U.S. growers to seek alternatives. But herbicide application, particularly to food crops, needs to be extremely precise to avoid problems.

Enter the prototype device conceived and constructed to apply only the precisely required amount of herbicide and to do so with pinpoint accuracy and without overspray or waste.

The goals are to achieve effective weed management and eliminate major physical harm to farm workers, as well as decrease both herbicide usage and potential for any chemical residues on the crop.*> W.T. Lanini, Lanini@vegmail.ucdavis.edu .

thanks to Agnet and the Sacramento Bee for information.

GLOBAL IPM: BITS AND PIECES

Together, the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and the International Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement have ramped up research to identify (or develop) insect resistant maize that will lead to increased production and food security. *> www.sciencenewsdev.co.ke . In lab tests, the polyphagous predator Coleomegilla maculata was not affected by Cry3Bb-expressing transgenic corn pollen (event MON863). *> J.G. Lundgren, JLundgre@uiuc.edu. Of 10 research projects aimed at pesticide reducing technologies, less than 50 percent were adopted by growers, but overall the net farm level return was C.16 for every C.00 spent on research. *> A. Weersink, AWeersin@uoguelph.ca. Across the Northeastern U.S., weed management is the number one production-related problem facing organic and diversified vegetable and grain farmers, and will be investigated for improved IPM approaches. *> W.S. Curran, WCurran@psu.edu. A coccinellid found attacking Aphis glycines Mats. (soybean aphid) shows potential for being an important biocontrol agent of A. glycines in the southern U.S. *> G.C. Brown, GCBrown@ix.netcom.com. Introduction of genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) into the U.K. would significantly reduce agrochemical usage and save growers an estimated US million annually on average. *> M.J. May, Mike.May@bbsrc.ac.uk .
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

PUBLICATIONS PERUSED (2 in this issue)

PEOPLE AND RODENTS INTERACTING

While rodents as a key group account for more than 40 percent of known mammalian species, only an estimated 5 percent of rodent species are pests, but as such are capable of causing severe losses of crops in many world regions, as well as being reservoirs of organisms that cause debilitating diseases in humans and livestock. An extensive 2003 document, RATS, MICE AND PEOPLE: RODENT BIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, focuses on important aspects of rodent-human interactions and offers dozens of papers and reports, many arising from the 2nd International Conference on Rodent Biology and Management in early 2003. Editors G.R. Singleton, et al grouped materials into nine "symposia" ranging from taxonomy and behavior to management, both in the field and in urban settings. The softbound, 564-page work is functionally organized and attractively presented. While emphasizing Asian experiencethe Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) sponsored the publication, which is ACIAR Monograph #96the presented information is comprehensive and broadly applicable. *> Communications, ACIAR, GPO Box 1571, Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA. Eml: comms@aciar.gov.au . Fax: 61-2-6217-0501.

A MASSIVE PATHOLOGY REVIEW

Roughly every decade, the global sorghum and millet pathology community meets to assess progress, doing so most recently in 2000. Most of the numerous papers presented at this conference have been melded into a 2002 volume, SORGHUM AND MILLETS DISEASES, containing the decennial summary of work in progress as well as setting forth the critical areas for future research. Editor J.F. Leslie has not only included conference presentations, but has expanded the book's coverage beyond to round out this 516-page, landmark reference. The hardbound work offers dozens of papers by global experts compiled into 21 chapters, and stands as "a considered summary" of current critical problems in disease management for these globally important crops. *> Blackwell/Iowa State Press, 2121 State Ave., Ames, IA 50014-8300, USA. Fax: 1-515-292-3348. Eml: marketing@iowastatepress.com . Web: store.yahoo.com .

PUBLICATION & CD NOTES

IPM FOR POTATOES

Canada's Prince Edward Island Province recently published INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR POTATO PRODUCTION, a 164-page, full color publication that covers topics ranging from basic definitions of IPM through weed, insect, and disease pests of potatoes. The table of contents can be seen at: www.gov.pe.ca . Copies can be purchased from PEI Agriculture and Forestry by calling1-866-734-3276. *> R. Cheverie, RMCheverie@gov.pe.ca.

GUIDE: MODIFIED ORGANISM RELEASE

CropLife International, a global network representing the plant science industry, has prepared and launched a "Reference Guide on Biosafety Frameworks Addressing the Release of Plant LMOs (Living Modified Organisms)," intended to help governments develop national science-based risk assessment and risk management measures for the intentional release of plants that have, according to a news release, "been improved using modern biotechnology." The indicated document focuses on approaches to identify potential risks and, where necessary, to assess and manage potential impacts on the environment. Copies of the Guide are available from Croplife International. *> S. Weller,Stephen@croplife.org . Phone: 32-2-542-0413. Web: www.gcpf.org.

PEST RESEARCH PROFILED

The June 2003 edition (vol. 59, issue 6-7) of PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE devotes its pages to a series of summary articles profiling research undertaken by the Agricultural Research Service of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. This special double edition reports on most phases of government sponsored investigation of pest insect, weed, and pathogen management programs. Abstracts of each of the 28 included articles are on the web at: www3interscience.wiley.com .

WEB, VIDEO, & OTHER RESOURCES

RESISTING HERBICIDE RESISTANCE

Herbicide resistant weeds are a growing problem (and a very tiredpun) that is drawing increasing attention. A recent 4-page publication (no. A3615) from the Nutrient and Pest Management program at the Univ. of Wisconsin (USA), "Avoiding Herbicide Resistance in Weeds," by R. Proost, et al colorfully describes the issue, asks key questions, and most importantly sets forth succinct information about various herbicidal modes of action, plus key steps to help forestall resistance development. The useful document can be freely downloaded from: ipcm.wisc.edu .

thanks to E.G. Rajotte for information.

SOME PESTS OF BRITATOES

An informative website from the British Potato Council includes a "Pests and Diseases Search" table, a list of organisms in the categories of diseases, disorders, and pests (insects, nematodes, slugs) that attack potatoes in the UK. For each listed pest, there is an interactive section for details (symptoms, conditions, controls) plus an image, at www.potato.org.uk . *> S. Gerrish, BPC, 4300 Nash Court, John Smith Dr., Oxford Business Park, Oxford OX4 2RT, UK. Eml: SGerrish@potato.org.uk .Fax: 44-0-1865-782283. Phone: 44-0-1865-782270.

BIO-TECH CAN ABET BIODIVERSITY

A comprehensive new (2003) report assesses the relationship between modern agricultural production and the loss of valuable biodiversity, and then examines the potential of biotechnology in the form of genetically modified crops to slow down or even reverse the bio-slide. In "Biodiversity and Agricultural Biotechnology, A Review of the Impact of Agricultural Biotechnology on Biodiversity," on-line at www.bio author K. Ammann asserts that, "by slowing the rate at which natural habitats are destroyed, GM crops and other technologies that increase agricultural productivity can help to preserve natural biodiversity." He contends that "GM crops are important tools in the preservation of biodiversity," and "creating agricultural systems with minimal impact on biodiversity will require utilizing all available technologies while simultaneously encouraging appropriate farmer practices."*> K. Ammann, Botanical Garden, Univ. of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, SWITZERLAND. Eml: Klaus.Ammann@ips.unibe.ch .

thanks to AgBio View for information.

WILDLAND PLANT INVADERS

Material from INVASIVE PLANTS OF CALIFORNIA'S WILDLANDS edited by C.C. Bossard, et al originally published in 2000 through the California Exotic Pest Plant Council (CalEPPC) as a 360-page volume (133 color photos, 76 black/white illustrations), can now be found in an on-line version at: groups.ucanr.org A database provides nomenclature, description, management data, and more for dozens of plant species.





EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

SMALL INSECTARY IS FEATURE RICH

An insect cage specifically designed to study insect-plant interactions (based on actual whitefly research) offers improved convenience as well as greater consistency and reliability due, in part, to reduced pathogen presence, according to the maker. Known as the Polaris Insectary, the 12kg (26.5Lb) device separates the insect chamber and watering medium, thus avoiding fungal growth in the former and algal presence in the dark watering system. Clear acrylic panels on four sides can be removed for cleaning or replacement, and two have quick releases to allow large plants to be inserted or removed. Two smaller doors on the 56x60x60cm (22x23.6x23.6in.) insectary have handles and are attached with magnetic strips. Apertures are covered with 50 mic. mesh, and a circulating fan moves air through the cage to eliminate condensation. A water level sensor warns of low water levels. Units pack flat for shipment. *> Polaris Instruments, 1 Home Farm Court, Diddington, St. Neots, Cambridgeshire PE19 5XT, UK. Fax: 44-0-1480-811311. Eml: information@polaris.co.uk . Phone: 44-0-1480-810846.Web: www.polaris.co.uk .

thanks to the EWSN Newsletter for information.

CORRECTIONS TO PREVIOUS ISSUE

Corrections for IPMnet NEWS #114, June 2003:

In: Section IV. "U.S. REGIONAL PEST MANAGEMENT CENTERS" ... Under:

"Insect Management Handbook Goes On Line" ... the correct web sites should have been listed as: pnwpest.org ; and,

pnwpest.org .IPMnet NEWS regrets stating incorrect information, as well as any inconvenience or problem that it may have caused.

Ed.


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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

General

"An Introduction to the Farm-scale Evaluations of Genetically Modified Herbicide-tolerant Crops," Firbank, L.G., et al * JRNL. OF APPLD. ECOL., 40(1), 2-16, February 2003. "Two Decades of Bottom-up, Ecologically Based Pest Management in a Small Commercial Apple Orchard in Massachusetts," Prokopy, R. * AGRIC. ECOSYS. AND ENVIRON., 94(3), 299-309, March 2003. Biocontrol

"A Pathogenic Bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis to the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua " Y. Park, et al * JRNL. OF ASIA-PACIFIC ENTOM., 5(2), 221-225, 2002. "Can Field-scale Habitat Diversification Enhance the Biocontrol Potential of Spiders?" Samu, F. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 59(4), 437-442, April 2003. Phytopathology

"Disease Management of Spring Barley with Reduced Doses of Fungicides in Northern Ireland," Mercer, P.C., and A. Ruddock. * CROP PROT., 22(1), 79-85, February 2003. "Fungitoxic Properties of Selected South African Plant Species Against Plant Pathogens of Economic Importance in Agriculture," Pretorius, J.C., et al * ANNS. OF APPLD. BIOL., 141(2), 117-124, October 2002. Weed Management

"Crop Rotation and Tillage System Effects on Weed Seedbanks," Cardina, J., et al * WEED SCI., 50(4), 448-460, July 2002. "Evaluating Predictive Models with Application in Regulatory Policy for Invasive Weeds," Hughes, G., and L.V. Madden. * AGRIC. SYST., 76(2), 755-774, May 2003."Subtle Effects of Herbicide Use in the Context of Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study with Glyphosate (Roundup(R))," Blackburn, L.G., and C. Boutin. * ECOTOX., 12(1-4), 271-285, February-August 2003. Entomology

"Impact of Insecticide Drift on Aphids and their Parasitoids: Residual Toxicity, Persistence and Recolonisation," Langhof, M., et al * AGRIC. ECOSYS. AND ENVIRON., 94(3), 265-274, March 2003. "Population Dynamics of the Colorado Potato Beetle in an Agroecosystem with Tomatoes and Potatoes with Management Implications to Processing Tomatoes," Harding, C.L., et al * ENVIRON. ENTOM., 31(6), 1110-1118, December 2002. Special Bt sub-Section

"Weighing the Economic Costs and Benefits of Bt Cotton in South Africa," Morse, S., et al * ISB NEWS REPT., May 2003. HTML (or PDF) - www.isb.vt.edu "Bt Sweet Corn and Selective Insecticides: Impacts on Pests and Predators," Musser, F.R., and A.M. Shelton. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOMOL., 96(1), 71-80, February 2003. Vertebrates

"Short-term Effects of Farming Practices on Populations of Common Voles," Jacob, J. * AGRIC. ECOSYS. AND ENVIRON., 95(1), 321-325, April 2003.
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U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments

Profiles and Strategic Plans

Outcome from a law passed in the U.S. several years ago includes extensive review of pesticide use data for both major and minor crops. Because some of these uses will no longer be legal, the need for a thorough review of the current situation and future requirements became urgent. A fundamental tool for gathering all the information needed to conduct assessments is the crop profile (CP), an omnibus document that not only describes the crop, but includes pest management issues and other information bearing on the crop's production.

Crop profiles assume a variety of formats, reflecting the individual approaches and concerns of each state (region) all of which are under directive to prepare them, but basically are designed to: Fully describe production practices; List problem-causing pest organisms; List main pest management practices (and specifically pesticides currently in use, if any); Identify critical pest management needs, current and future; and, List farm worker operations during the crop cycle. Formats allow for text and visual illustrations as well as tables and charts. Content in any form is aimed at providing the information that fully profiles a specific crop in a specific state or locale.

A second set of documents, Pest Management Strategic Plans (PMSP), build on CPs and are developed through collaborative efforts of growers, commodity organization, research specialists, food processors, crop consultants, and governmental officials. PMSPs are oriented toward a pest-by-pest approach that identifies current management practices and materials, and those under development. PMSPs are also designed to state a commodity's priorities for research, regulatory activity, and education/training programs needed for transition to alternative pest management practices.

Completed CPs and PMSPs are all listed on the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Regional Pest Management Centers website at: www.pmcenters.org ; crops for each of the four national regions are also listed on that regional center's specific website.

thanks to J.T. DeFrancesco for information.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)


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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2003

[R] 06-11 July * POSTPONED DUE TO SARS * 15TH INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CONGRESS, Beijing, CHINA. See: 11-16 May, 2004.

(N) 04-07 September * 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES AND SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA, Wooster, OH, USA. Contact: P. Grewal, Dept. of Entomology, OSU, OARDC, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691, USA. Eml: Grewal.4@osu.edu . Fax: 1-330-263-3686. Phone: 1-330-263-3963.

(N) 18-19 September * 4TH ASIA-PACIFIC CROP PROTECTION CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION, New Delhi, INDIA. Contact: C.G. Dharne, Conf. Dir., B-4, Anand Co-operative Housing Soc., Sitladevi Temple Rd., Mahim (W), Mumbai 400 016, INDIA. Eml: PMFAI@bom4.vsnl.net.in . Fax: 91-22-2437-6856. Web: www.pmfai.org

[R] 02-04 October * NEW INFORMATION * PLANNING WEED MANAGEMENT FOR ECOSYSTEM RECOVERY, California Exotic Pest Plant Council 2003 Meeting, Lake Tahoe, CA, USA. Contact: Exec. Director, CalEPPC, 1442-A Walnut St., #462, Berkeley, CA 94709, USA. Phone: 1-510-525-1502. Eml: DWJohnson@caleppc.org.

[R] 16-18 October * REVISED * ASSOCIATION OF NATURAL BIO-CONTROL PRODUCERS ANNUAL CONFERENCE, Niagara Falls, ONT, CANADA. Contact: ANBP, 10202 Cowan Hts. Dr., Santa Ana, CA 92705, USA. Eml: execdir@anbp.org . Web: www.anbp.org . Fax/phone: 1-714-544-8295.

(N) 30 October-01 November * 3RD LATIN AMERICAN SYMPOSIUM ON AG ADJUVANTS, "SILCA," Mercosur, BRAZIL. Contact: D. Badulescu, Manuel M. Ponce No. 255-2, Col. Guadalupe Inn, Mexico City 01020, MEXICO. Eml: columbus@columbus-grp.com . Fax: 52-5662-1198. Phone: 52-5661-4435. Web: www.silca.org.

(N) 30 November-05 December * IOBC/WPRS WORKING GROUP MEETING, "Protected Crops in Mediterranean Climate," Agadir, MOROCCO. Contact: A. Hanafi, Hanafi@iavcha.ac.ma . Web: www.iavcha.ac.ma

2004

[R] 11-16 May * NEW DATE * 15TH INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CONGRESS, Beijing, CHINA. Contact: W. Li-ping, Secretariat, 15th IPPC, Inst. of Plant Prot., Chinese Acad. of Agric. Sci., #2 West Yuanmingyuan Rd., Beijing 100094, CHINA. Eml: ippc2003@ipmchina.net . Fax: 86-10-628-11917. Web: www.ipmchina.net . NOTE: the 2nd Circular for the Congress is available on the website, from the Congress Secretariat, and (for those in the USA) from: IAPPS, NSF Center for IPM, Box 7553, North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC 27695-7553, USA. Fax: 1-919-515-1114. Eml: J_Apple@ncsu.edu.

(N) 14-18 June * 27TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF NEMATOLOGISTS, Rome, ITALY. Contact: E. Francsco, C.N.R. - Ist. di Nematologia, Agr. Via G. Amendola 165/A, Bari, ITALY. Eml: nemafe01@area.ba.cnr.it . Fax: 39-080-548-4165. Phone: 39-080.548-4187.

(N) 05-09 October * 2ND EUROPEAN WHITEFLY SYMPOSIUM, Cavtat, CROATIA. Contact: H. Aras, Inst. for Adriatic Crops and Karst Reclm., PO Box 288, 21000 Split, CROATIA. Eml: Helenka@krs.hr . Fax: 385-213-16584. Web: www.whitefly.org . Phone: 385-213-16579.

(N) 22-26 November * INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CEREAL STEM AND COB BORERS IN AFRICA, "Achievements and Perspectives," Nairobi, KENYA. * Contact: ICCBA Secretariat, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772, Nairobi, KENYA. Eml: ICCBA@icipe.org . Fax: 254-2-860110. Web: www.icipe.org

2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008

No NEW or REVISED entries to list in this issue.


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