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November 2003, Issue no. 119
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Refuge Roulette: Growers Defy Requirements

A significant percentage of U.S. corn and soybean growers are taking careful aim in preparation for shooting themselves in the foot.

Growers who opt to plant crops genetically modified (GM) with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are required by federal guidelines to plant 20 percent of their fields with non-GM crops, establishing refuges to help delay development of pest insect resistance to Bt, as well as to protect the environment.

However, federal survey responses reported in 2002 revealed that more than 19 percent of farms growing Bt-corn in 10 midwestern U.S. states skirted federal requirements and either cut back the accepted refuge size, or didn't bother to plant them at all. These growers violated the requirement, were deemed to be noncompliant, or in plain words, cheated. That action that could have future consequences.

A noted entomologist long involved with developing rational management approaches to pest insects attacking midwestern corn and other crops exclaimed, "I was dismayed," by the federal noncompliance findings. "No wonder the general public is skeptical about our stewardship of products developed from biotechnology," he wrote in a recent newsletter.

Citing the latest data and the widespread violations of the refuge requirement, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) urged the responsible federal agency to implement several actions: * obtain the most accurate data possible on refuge compliance; * require regular on-farm visits to assess compliance; * require growers to provide a certificate of compliance and map identifying Bt and non-Bt fields; * investigate with growers reasons for noncompliance and take action based on that information; * require registrants (the firms selling Bt crop seed) to devise strategies to reduce noncompliance, or face federal restriction of Bt crop seed sales.

excerpted with thanks from sources:

"Planting Trouble: Are Farmers Squandering Bt Corn Technology?," G. Jaffe, Center for Science in the Public Interest. Web: www.cspinet.org , June 2003

"Bt corn and Insect Resistance Management: Whither Refuges?," Pest Management & Crop Development, K.L. Steffey. Web: www.ag.uiuc.edu . October 2003.

"Genetically Modified Crops in the United States," Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology. October 2003. Web: pewagbiotech.org


** Of some 22,000 plant species brought to Australia in the last 200 years, about 3,000 have become weed problems, many being severe. From: "When Backyard Beauties Become Bushland Bullies." *> S. Vidler, Sally.Vidler@adelaide.edu.au .

** A bill prohibiting "hand" weeding on commercial farms failed in the State of California Assembly, relieving worries of organic growers who rely on manual weeding instead of herbicides. *> Agnet, September 17, 2003.

** Herbicides applied at standard rates to maize and soybean did not cause carry-over problems for subsequently planted vegetables in trials conducted with adequate soil moisture and warm soil conditions. *> R.G. Greenland, RGreenla@ndsuext.nodak.edu .

** Instances of leaking application equipment and failure to wear protective clothing were found during a survey of pesticide application in CAMEROON. *> G.A. Matthews, G.Matthews@ic.ac.uk .
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

A Muted Toot of the Horn

With a decade of uninterrupted monthly publication in hand, IPMnet NEWS and its sponsors, the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP), hopefully will be forgiven a rare spate of chest thumping.

In 1993, CICP Board members met to brainstorm the dual challenge of finding an avenue to continue the Consortium's long and productive efforts to foster global IPM development and adoption, but now without a traditional means of support. Creation of an electronic newsletter to communicate recent developments in IPM to an international audience seemed like a plausible and highly worthwhile option that capitalized on the emergence and accessibility of the Internet coupled with the fact that no other entity had stepped forward to provide what was deemed a potentially important service.

The endeavor was a gamble; what initially stumbled out of the gate as "Global IPM Information Service" (the not to memorable "GIPMIS") quickly morphed into IPMnet and inclusion of the monthly IPMnet NEWS, an embryonic website, and a slate of creative ideas for broadly disseminating IPM information. A search and salubrious circumstances connected CICP with a semi-retired agricultural technical editor with international newsletter experience, time on his hands, a suitably smudged keyboard, and a keen interest in tackling the challenge.

From inception IPMnet NEWS has spread, fungus-like, from an inauspicious initial distribution of just under 300 e-mail addresses 10 years ago to well over 3,000 e-mail subscribers today, plus uncounted web viewers and others who see pass-along files or articles from the NEWS picked up by other electronic outlets. While the wheels came off and sidelined numerous other IPM information vehicles for any number of reasons, IPMnet NEWS has trudged forward with intent to stay the course.

The NEWS owes it's continuation to a very supportive CICP Board of Directors led by J.D. Harper, the nurturing of R.E. Ford as CICP's executive director, and especially to the interest and tangible support from M.S. Fitzner, national program leader for IPM at the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, & Extension Service. The encouragement and provision of a home and infrastructure for the NEWS by the director of Oregon State University's Integrated Plant Protection Center M. Kogan for many years (and a prime architect of IPMnet), and most recently P.C. Jepson has been incalculably valuable and the essential lifeblood of the effort.

Lastly, a very heartfelt salute and "thanks" is extended to all NEWS e-mail subscribers and website viewers. After all, there's commonality of interest in seeking more rational pest management approaches, but your continued readership of the NEWS is genuinely appreciated, valued, and critical to the global future of IPM. PUBLICATIONS PERUSED (5 in this issue)


A new, lavishly illustrated manual is a practical guide to the identification and biology of submerged, floating-leaved, and emergent aquatic weeds in rice production fields, water use systems, and wild land areas across the western U.S. With 442 pages, AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN WEEDS OF THE WEST is the first such comprehensive volume for the region and covers 171 aquatic plant species in 58 plant groups. Authors J.M. DiTomaso and E.A. Healy include full descriptions of 82 species and compare another 96 plants as similar species, representing over 40 plant families. The softbound, 2003 work includes: more than 560 clear full color photos; 17 shortcut identification tables to groups that share similar, unusual, or relatively uncommon characteristics; useful keys to floating-leaved and submerged aquatic weeds, pondweeds, and grasses or grass-like species; plus a glossary, and a bibliography with a handy "by genera" section. The landmark guide, Pub. #3421, was sponsored by the California Weed Science Society, and, while based on the western U.S., could be a valuable reference for other regions with similar aquatic plant species. *> ANR, Univ. of California, 6701 San Pablo Ave., 2nd. floor, Oakland, CA 94608-1239, USA. danrcs@ucdavis.edu . Phone: 1-510-643-2431.Fax: 1-510-643-5470. Web: anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu .


A regional collaborative project developed and validated a sustain-able IPM strategy for managing Leucinodes orbonalis (Guenee) (eggplant fruit and shoot borer), a primary pest of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant), one of the most popular and economically important vegetables among small-scale farmers and low income consumers in South Asia. Scientists from Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka worked with the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) to formulate a multitactic approach involving sanitation, use of pheromone traps, and reduction in pesticide use to encourage parasitoid activity. A 2003, softbound booklet, DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EGGPLANT FRUIT AND SHOOT BORER IN SOUTH ASIA, describes the process and favorable results. Authors S.N. Alam, et al, discuss each element of the strategy and present 25 figures, some in full color, as well as extensive tables. The 56-page work is Tech. Bull. #28.

A companion publication reveals the impact IPM adoption had on one region's eggplant growers. In SOCIO-ECONOMIC PARAMETERS OF EGGPLANT PEST CONTROL IN JESSORE DISTRICT OF BANGLADESH, M.A. Rashid, et al initially found that 98 percent of 100 eggplant farmers interviewed entirely relied on pesticides to control L. orbonalis, with more than 60 percent spraying their eggplant crop 140 times or more per season. Most sprayed everyday during the rainy season; pesticide cost was the single highest expense of production. Following demonstration of an IPM program sanitation, pheromones, and withholding pesticides those farmers adopting IPM reduced their labor and pesticide expenses, and had less reported illness. This softbound, 29-page monograph was published in 2003 as Tech. Bull #29, and includes both figures and tables.*> AVRDC, Communication/Training, PO Box 42, Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan 741, ROC. AVRDCbox@netra.avrdc.org.tw . Fax: 886-6-583-0009. Phone: 886-6-583-7801. Web: www.avrdc.org .


An international aggregation of authorities on biocontrol agents contributed a mass of material that editor J.C. van Lenteren has neatly organized into QUALITY CONTROL AND PRODUCTION OF BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS, THEORY AND TESTING PROCEDURES. In the words of the editor, this timely, 2003 monograph addresses "a great need for quality control in the production and use of these natural enemies." In fact, the need for quality control forms the backbone of the first two chapters before various specifics of production and testing are discussed. But quality control, and how to best achieve it with biological organisms, is a repeating and constant theme throughout the 331-page work. In short, this welcome hardbound volume tackles a touchy, but clearly relevant issue and in doing so helps establish guidelines for mass producing biocontrol agents, an increasingly important tool for global agriculture. *> CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxford OX10 8DE, UK.CABI@cabi.org . Fax: 44-0-1491-833508. Phone: 44-0-1491-832111. Web: www.cabi .


A collection of illuminating papers from the 19th and early 20th centuries highlight the pioneering research on plant disease conducted by T.J. Burrill, J.C. Arthur, and M.B. Waite. These three notable scientists established the fundamental concept that bacteria could cause plant disease and provided the first proof that insects acted as vectors of plant pathogens. C.S. Griffith, et al, have edited these milestone documents into the informative FIRE BLIGHT: THE FOUNDATION OF PHYTOBACTERIOLOGY, a 2003, all-text work. The 158-page, softbound monograph introduces fire blight, its history, and science, as well alluding to the "politics of a disease." A concluding chapter considers fire blight in the 20th century. *> APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. aps@scisoc.org .Fax: 1-651-454-0766. Phone: 1-651-454-7250. Web: www.apsnet.org . PUBLICATION & CD NOTES


The entomology unit of the South Australia Research and Development Institute (SARDI) has published an attractive and informative brochure, "IPM, Integrated Pest Management." Using full color photos and a compact style, the 6-panel information piece aims to enhance "general community awareness about IPM in Australia," notes D. Jevremov, SARDI's IPM Adoption Co-ordinator. The intent, Jevremov says, "was to begin to broaden public knowledge about pest management in their vegetables, and also to introduce IPM to some growers." The text ranges from defining IPM, to citing its benefits, as well as covering basic tactics involved. A list of additional resources is included. The brochure states that IPM "is widely accepted as the modern approach to agricultural pest management." *> D. Jevremov, SARDI Entomology Unit, GPO Box 397, Adelaide, SA 5001, AUSTRALIA. Fax: 61-8-8303-9542. Jevremov.Dijana@saugov.sa.gov.au . Phone: 61-8-8303-9672. thanks to D. Jevremov for information. REPORT FROM ROTHAMSTED

With restructuring of key agricultural research institutes in the U.K. completed, Rothamsted Research (RRes) emerges as a new entity replacing the former Institute of Arable Crops Research linking Rothamsted and Brooms Barn, and closing the Long Ashton research site. This, and a great deal of other information, especially treating several important pest management topics, is contained in the recently published and extremely reader-friendly ROTHAMSTEAD RESEARCH ANNUAL REPORT 2002-2003. lant resistance, Fusarium disease, weed dynamics and management systems, and numerous other research activities are described in a matrix of full color photos and graphic excellence.*> S. Bolton, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK. Susannah.Bolton@bbsrc.ac.uk . Fax: 44-01-582-760981.Phone: 44-01-582-763133. Web: www.rothamstead.bbsrc.ac.uk . SUSTAINABLE PEST MANAGEMENT

The Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) program in the U.S. has published "SARE 2003," a full color report that includes articles "about ways farmers and ranchers can make money while protecting the environment and improving quality of life in their rural communities," according to the publishers. Two of the 12 articles specifically concern pest management. The 16-page report can be freely downloaded from SARE's website: www.sare.org . Print copies can be requested from: san_assoc@sare.org . WEB, VIDEO, & OTHER RESOURCES


The mission of the Crop Advisor Institute (CAI) based at Iowa State Univ., (U.S.) is to "provide high-quality, interactive computer learning modules for the continuing education of certified crop advisers and other ag professionals." Material supplied to IPMnet suggests the mission is being accomplished. Of the 16 current modules, four specifically concern pest management such as: "Diseases of Crops * Basis & Definitions," "Foliar Diseases of Corn," and two others for soybean disorders. The modules are clearly structured, easily read, and designed to be digested in whole or in part as time and intention of the reader permit. Directions for accessing materials are clear and direct. A system of awarding credits is available. *> B.A. Brueland, CAI, 4 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA 50011-1050, USA. CAI@iastate.edu . Fax: 1-515-294-1924.Phone: 1-515-294-7546. Web: www.cai.iastate.edu . thanks to B.A. Brueland for providing information. SUDDEN OAK DEATH

The latest U.S. National Pest Alert publication succinctly addresses a rapidly spreading plant disease, SUDDEN OAK DEATH, Phytophthora ramorum, also known as Phytophthora canker disease. The two-page, full color information sheet discusses the origin, host range, and transmission of P. ramorum, as well as symptoms and identification, and most importantly, offers monitoring and management recommendations. The publication, with photos of disease-caused disorders, can be freely downloaded in PDF format from the website: www.ncpmc.org or requested in print from: S.T. Ratcliffe, Dept. of Crop Sci., S-316 Turner Hall, Univ. of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA. SRatclif@uiuc.edu . Fax: 1-217-333-5245.



Cotonou, REP. OF BENIN. * Conduct, publish, and communicate research related to development of biological control options against major arthropod pests (emphasis on invasive alien species) in tropical African farming systems; carry out foreign explorations for efficient natural enemies; screen and select promising candidates; implement releases together with other scientists and plant protection officers; maintain rearing colonies of natural enemies; provide technical backstopping and training to national program scientists and officers. * REQUIRES: PhD in relevant field within last 3 years; experience in developing and executing biological control projects; excellent knowledge of arthropod ecology and population dynamics; knowledge of molecular tools for arthropod identification and characterization; fluency in oral and written English (essential), proficiency in French (highly desirable); demonstrated ability to work independently and interact effectively within multi disciplinary teams, NARS, farmers, and officials; strong computer literacy. * CONTACT: V. Waiyaki, Human Resources, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, c/o Lambourn UK Ltd., Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Rd., Croydon CR9 3EE, UK. V.Waiyaki@cgiar.org . thanks to W. Hoffman and K. Cardwell for information.
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM



The U.S. state of Washington is a major international producer of tree fruit (apple, pear, cherry), and as such, has a long history of intensive pest insect management in its orchards. A recent paper, "Pesticide Use and IPM in Washington's Pear and Cherry Orchards," by J.F. Brunner, et al, provides a comprehensive, data-rich profile of how a segment of pest management has evolved from highly traditional, i.e., nearly exclusive application of pesticides, to increased adoption of biocontrol, use of degree-day models, and allied IPM tactics. The authors surveyed growers in 1990 and again in 2000; the results, backed by actual on-the-ground comparisons, show a clear trend along the "IPM spectrum." The article, appearing in the August 2003 issue of AGRICHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS, #108, and on the web at aenews.wsu.edu ,includes numerous detailed tables (color coded for ease of use). The reported research stands as a useful example for gathering data to establish a baseline from which to measure future IPM progress.*> S.O. Coates, A&E News, eml: SCoates@tricity.wsu.edu .Phone: 1-509-372-7378. excerpted with thanks from: AGRICHEM AND ENVIRON. NEWS. THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES


"Solanum Weeds as Hosts for Phthorimaea operculella, Implications for Resistance Management of Genetically Modified Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)," Davidson, M.M., and A.J. Conner. * NEW ZEA. JRNL. OF CROP AND HORT. SCI., 31(2), 91-97, 2003. Phytopathology

"Integrated Control of Sclerotium rolfsii on Groundnut in South Africa," Cilliers, A.J., et al. * JRNL. OF PHYTOPATH., 151(5), 249-258, May 2003. "Mapping and Pyramiding of Qualitative and Quantitative Resistance to Stripe Rust in Barley," Castro, A.J., et al. * THEO. AND APPLD. GENETICS, 107(5), 922-930, September 2003. Weed Management

"Effects of Rye Cover Crop Residue and Herbicides on Weed Control in Narrow and Wide Row Soybean Planting Systems," Koger, C.H., et al. * WEED BIOL. AND MGMT., 2(4), 216-224, December 2002. "The Economic Impact of Site-Specific Weed Control," Timmermann, C., and W. Kuhbauch. * PRECI. AGRI., 4(3), 249-260, September 2003. Entomology

"Evaluation of Alternative Tactics for Management of Insecticide Resistant Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)," Steelman, C.D., et al. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 96(3), 892-901, June 2003. "Natural Incidence of Cladosporium Spp. as a Bio-control Agent Against Whiteflies and Aphids in Egypt," Abdel-Baky, N.F., and A.H. Abdel-Salam. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ENTOM., 127(4), 228-235, May 2003. Bt sub-Section "Influence of Herbicide Tolerant Soybean Production Systems on Insect Pest Populations and Pest-Induced Crop Damage," McPherson, R.M., et al. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 96(3), 690-698, June 2003. "Tritrophic Choice Experiments with Bt Plants, the Diamondback Moth (_Plutella xylostella_) and the Parasitoids Cotesia plutellae," Schuler, T.H., et al. * TRANSGEN. RSCH., 12(3), 351-361, June 2003 Vertebrate Management

"Cost-effectiveness of Revegetating Degraded Riparian Habitats Adjacent to Macadamia Orchards in Reducing Rodent Damage," Ward, D., et al. * CROP PROT., 22(7), 935-940, August 2003.
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Shampooing Grasshoppers

It may be a useful foaming agent for shampoos, but when sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in a purported insecticide optimistically named DeadSAFE! was liberally applied to Melanoplus packardii (grasshoppers) in Wyoming, it didn't phase them, reports extension entomologist S.P. Schell who observed the futile presentation of what was billed as a new, environmentally safe insecticide.

Schell and a colleague were invited to a field demonstration of DeadSAFE!, modestly claimed to be safe to everything except all insects at all stages. Not only were the sprayed hoppers still active 45 minutes after being sprayed, they showed no adverse signs 4 days later.

The DeadSAFE! label claims to be exempt from registration as its main active ingredient, SLS, is deemed a minimum risk insecticide. The SLS in DeadSAFE! is 0.109 percent, and inert ingredients are 99.89 percent; thus a US9.99 jug of DeadSAFE! concentrate would contain less than 0.2 fluid ounces of SLS. Other sources offer 29 percent SLS for a tenth the price.

The DeadSAFE! website www.lp (replete with misspellings and fractured grammar) is sponsored by LP-Products. The site also promotes Trinity Horse Shampoo; maybe it and DeadSAFE! share their chemistry. Ironically DeadSAFE! is billed as "a nontoxic insecticide" and "safe to use around aquatic systems" (possibly related to after-lather rinsing).

Schell advises to be alert to unsupported claims for insecticidal products. In the case of DeadSAFE! however, he points out that at least it is made from relatively harmless ingredients that are safe to both humans and grasshoppers. thanks to S.P. Schell, M.D. Shenk, M.A. Ferrell, and the Amer. Assn. of Pesticide Safety Educators for information.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only) entries as of 30 October 2003.


(N) 26-29 November * ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS, IOBC/WPRS Study Group, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC. Contact: F. Sehnal, Entomology Inst., Czech Acad. of Sciences, Ceske Budejovice, CZECH REP. Sehnal@entu.cas.cz . Web: www.entu.cas.cz 09-11 March * WESTERN (U.S.) SOCIETY OF WEED SCIENCE ANNUAL MEETING, Colorado Springs, CO, USA. Contact: W. Graves, WSWS, PO Box 963, Newark, CA 94560-1843, USA. WGraves431@aol.com .

(N) 24-27 March * INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP: DEVELOPMENT OF BIOCONTROL AGENTS OF DISEASES FOR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS IN FOOD PRODUCTION SYSTEMS, Sevilla, SPAIN. Contact: N. Teixido, Centre UdL-IRTA, Av. Rovira Roure 191, E-25198, Lleida, Catalonia, SPAIN. Neus.Teixido@irta.es . Fax: 34-97-370-2596. Phone: 34-97-370-2535. Web: www.biopostharvest.org .

(N) 31 March-01 April * BIOFUMIGATION SYMPOSIUM, Florence, ITALY. Contact: S. Palmieri, eml: S.Palmieri@isci.it .

[R] 13-16 June * new information * 2004 CANADIAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL MEETING (75th anniversary), Ottawa, ONT, CANADA. Contact: A. Levesque, Levesqueca@agr.gc.ca.

(N) 10-13 August * FOREST DIVERSITY AND RESISTANCE TO NATIVE AND EXOTIC PEST INSECTS, Hanmer Springs, NEW ZEALAND. Contact: E. Brockerhoff, Forest Research, Univ. of Canterbury, PO Box 29237, Fendalton, Christchurch 8004, NEW ZEALAND. Fax: 64-3-364-2812. Eckehard.brockerhoff@forestresearch.co.nz . Phone: 64-3-364-2949. Web: iufro.boku.ac.at 06-10 June * 7TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON POISONOUS PLANTS, Logan, UT, USA. Contact: J. Pfister, USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Lab., 1150 E. 1400 N., Logan, UT 84341, USA. JPfister@cc.usu.edu . Fax: 1-435-753-5681. Phone: 1-435-752-2941.

2006, 2007, and 2008

No (N) ew/[R]evised events (for above years) to cite in this issue.
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