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January 2004, Issue no. 121
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Middle East Area-wide IPM Effort Progresses

While it may pale in comparison to other, more publicized middle east regional peace initiatives, a cooperative transnational IPM program is showing that countries with widely differing politics, but a common insect pest, can collaborate to develop an effective area-wide management approach.

A major goal of this cooperative project, beyond contributing indirectly to the peace process, was to establish a cross-border, area-wide management scheme that would: a) provide a forum for sharing experience and information; b) promote regional approaches to address shared issues; c) enhance national and local programs; and, most importantly, d) provide a vehicle for cooperation among researchers and experts, officials, farmers, and agricultural suppliers, according to entomologist R.D. Oetting who served as a technical advisor to the program for nearly a decade.

Since the mid-1990s, representatives from Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian Authority have been working together under this initiative to target Bemisia tabaci (tobacco whitefly), a key insect pest throughout the region. The externally funded work determined that, while numerous pests threaten greenhouse vegetable production, B. tabaci and the viruses it vectors was problem number one.

An IPM program was established and the area-wide approach adopted as the only rational framework for gaining some measure of control across the region, with a parallel goal of reducing the volume of, and reliance on, pesticides. Two major emphases were: recruit and train scouts in the region; and, develop a pesticide resistance monitoring program at strategic locations.

The program initially centered in the Jordan Valley (on both sides of the Jordan River). Several activities involved participants from all cooperating countries. A scouting field guide (in Arabic) was produced, followed by organizing training activities for scouts and farmers. A demonstration greenhouse was built and a dedicated training center established.

The project, according to participating technical experts, has significantly increased communication among farmers and cooperators. Dr. Oetting observed that the effort also may stimulate development of IPM and resistance programs for managing other insect pests in field crops and orchards. excerpted, with thanks, from "Guest Editorial," by R.D. Oetting, PHYTOPARASITICA, 32(1), 3-5, 2003; special thanks to Dr. Oetting for generous collaboration. GMOs: Dueling Assessments

One of the key envisioned benefits of genetically modified crops (GMOs) is reduced application of pesticides. Interestingly, two recent studies concerning the effect of GMOs on pesticide usage in the U.S. arrived at conclusions 180 degrees apart. "Barebones" information about the two reports follows for those who might want to probe further and produce their own assessment.

Study 1: What: technical report, "Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use in the United States: The First Eight Years." Conducted by: C.M. Benbrook, Benbrook Consulting and Northwest Science and Environmental Policy Center.

Findings: "GE crops have modestly increased the overall volume of pesticides applied in the production of corn, soybeans, and cotton from 1996 through 2003." "Total pesticide use has risen some 50.6 million pounds over the eight-year period studied."

Sponsored by: Organic Farming Research Fdn.; Union of Concerned Scientists; Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy; and other groups opposed to GM cropping.

Source: BioTech InfoNet Technical Paper Number 6, November 2003, 46 pages, at www.biotech . Contact: C.M. Benbrook, Benbrook@hillnet.com.

Study 2:

What: economic study, "Biotech 2012 Business Analysis." (Described in a news release, "GM Seeds, Generic Glyphosate Taking a Bigger Bite Out of Major Crop Protection Chemical Markets.")

Conducted by: M. Cyr, senior associate, Agribusiness Practice, Kline & Company.

Findings: "Grower expenditures for crop protection chemicals for corn, cotton, and soybeans are expected to drop by more than US billion over the next five years." "New insect resistance genes for corn over next few years will greatly reduce the need for insecticides." Sponsored by: Kline & Company; prepared for income generation.

Source: 4-volume study, Kline & Company, an international research and management organization. Contact: D. Fugate, Dennis_Fugate@klinegroup.com . Phone: 1-410-418-8934. Web: www.Klinegroup.com .


Molecular markers were found to be useful tools for determining the origin and arrival mechanism of invasive weed species. *> J.M. Bond, Jomb@ceh.ac.uk .

Benefits of a U.S. viral protection program for fruit producers, nurseries, and consumers, were estimated to be US7 million annually, well over 400 times the program's cost. *> T. Cembali, Tiziano@wsu.edu .

A recent ethnoentomological study documents Nepalese farmers' perceptions of insects and ensuing implications for pest management. *> A.B. Gurung, bjoernsen@sanw.unibe.ch .

Of Sweden's estimated 70,000 full or part-time farmers, 74 percent have computers and 80 percent of these are connected to the internet. *> M. Trellman, Marcus.Trellman@lrf.se .

Among candidates to replace the ozone-damaging pesticide methyl bromide (MeBr), a liquid formula of sodium azide applied via drip irrigation is said to out-perform MeBr and avoid environmental damage. *> R. Rodriguez-Kabana, RodrirR@auburn.edu .
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources



For many years DISEASES OF FIELD CROPS IN CANADA served admirably as an important compilation and reference. In 2003, a third edition was published with extensive new information several crops have emerged since the last revision in 1988presented in a contemporary layout. Twenty two chapters address both diseases of major crops and crop groups, such as Brassicas, plus related topics including disease management strategies. Editors K.L. Bailey, et al, have drawn on material provided by dozens of experts to build a solid case on the statement that "Everyone is affected directly or indirectly by plant diseases." The comprehensive soft cover, spiral bound (lay-flat) volume includes detailed identification information and control tactics for almost every pathogen cited, as well as over 650 full color photos and 10 black/white disease cycle diagrams. Designer J. Forrie has deftly enhanced text and visuals with a reader-pleasing graphic format. The 304-page work, while sufficiently technical, serves well as a practical guide for all who cope with plant diseases; it is also broadly applicable to many other regions beyond Canada. *> K. Cahill, Rm. 125, Kirk Hall, Extension Div., Univ. of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Pl., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8, CANADA. Fax: 1-306-966-5567. U.Learn@usask.ca . Phone: 1-306-966-5565. Web: www.extension.usask.ca .


A unique 2003 publication has been written to fill "a now existing vacuum in the IPM and development literature by providing guidelines, and examples, on how to proceed in the promotion of safer and more effective pest management" to be implemented for resource-constrained farmers in developing nations. Under the sponsorship of CARE-USA and the U.S. Agency for International Development, S. Gladstone and A.J. Hruska, both working in NICARAGUA, prepared GUIDELINES FOR PROMOTING SAFER AND MORE EFFECTIVE PEST MANAGEMENT WITH SMALL HOLDER FARMERS: A CONTRIBUTION TO USAID-FFP ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE. The guidelines were developed for use in skill building workshops and, in essence, decrease reliance on certain classes of pesticide, and both introduce and emphasize well recognized IPM elements. Drawing on their extensive experience, the authors promptly layout the myriad challenges of small farm pest management and methodically detail the considerations and procedures to consider in moving toward problem solution. The text covers numerous IPM strategies and tactics and weaves them into the discussion of alternatives and appropriate use. The 103-page work, attractively designed with over 70 full color illustrations, includes a few minor proof-reading glitches, and is freely available in both Spanish and English versions as a (long) printable PDF file from: *> A.J. Hruska, AHruska@nicasalud.org.ni . Or contact: R. Bell, CARE-USA, Food Resources, 151 Ellis St., Atlanta, GA 30303-2440, USA. Fax: 1-404-589-2625. BellR@care.org . Phone: 1-404-979-9119.


Pesticide use manuals are a staple of most nations, states, or other entities and an important source of information. Standing tall amongst this group in terms of sheer depth of information, usefulness, and reader-friendly format is the 2nd edition of the Univ. of California's THE SAFE AND EFFECTIVE USE OF PESTICIDES. This revised, updated, and expanded 2000 version (of a 1988 first edition) contains detailed information for selecting, applying, handling, storing, and disposing of pesticides, all within an IPM context of reducing reliance on pesticides where possible. Editor P.J. O'Connor-Marer, marshaling material from dozens of specialists, has emphasized prevention of groundwater contamination, protection of workers, wildlife, and endangered species, plus reduction of environmental impacts. Included principles apply to all areas of pest management agricultural, urban, greenhouse, and public health. Not only is this softbound volume packed with practical information, its 352 pages are heavily illustrated and artfully designed with a complementing second color. The per copy price is very reasonable and orders of 10 or more copies receive a 26 percent discount. Publication #3324. *> Comm. Svcs/Publications, ANR, Univ. of California, 6701 San Pablo Ave., 2nd. Floor, Oakland, CA 94608-1239, USA. danrcs@ucdavis.edu . Fax: 1-510-643-5470.Phone: 1-510-642-2431. Web: danrcs.ucdavis.edu . PUBLICATION & CD NOTES


A recent article in WHAT'S NEW IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS?, issue 26, November 2003, explores the "other" side of weed biocontrol, wherein the target plant is viewed, not as a pest, but as a useful, or economic resource. The article, "Disagreements, Delays and Big Decisions," points out that "serious conflicts of interest can cause major delays to biocontrol programmes or even prevent them from getting underway." Not only are their economic or usage concerns, anxiety arises over biocontrol agents possibly attacking beneficial non-target plants. Authors M. Stanley and L. Hayes list nearly 30 instances of such conflicting viewpoints in the table "Summary of Economic Biocontrol Conflicts of Interest Worldwide."*> L. Hayes, Landcare Rsch., PO Box 69, Lincoln 8152, NEW ZEALAND. HayesL@landcareresearch.co.nz . Fax: 64-3-325-2418.Phone: 64-3-325-6700.


As with previous annual reports from for the Lima, PERU-based International Potato Center (CIP), the actively artistic 2002 version only nods toward pest management in the main text, but then includes short synopses of ongoing research programs including IPM for root and tuber crops, management of late blight, and descriptions of virus control tactics. The report is said to be on the website: www.cipotato.org , but requires extra "plug-ins" for access. *> CIP, Apartado 1558, Lima 12, PERU. CIP@cgiar.org . Fax: 51-1-317-5326. WEB, VIDEO, & OTHER RESOURCES


Seven papers presented at a 2002 American Phytopathological Society symposium, "Managing Risk to Minimize Crop Loss," are now available online through the Plant Health Progress segment of the Plant Management Network at www.plantmanagementnetwork.org . The included papers discuss key aspects of determining and managing risk elements of plant disease ranging across theoretical application and actual field implementation.


Most of all the world's known information about herbicide-resistant (H-R) weeds can be found in the International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds at the colorful multi-sponsor website: weedscience.org . The site's stated purpose is, "to monitor the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds and assess their impact throughout the world." The latest tally of H-R weeds: 284 resistant biotypes, 171 species (102 dicots and 69 monocots), in more than 270,000 fields worldwide. The easily navigated site includes an Herbicide-Resistant Weeds Summary Table accessed by weed scientific or common name, or herbicide mode of action. Other drop-down menus concern involved researchers, weed photos, and appropriate contacts. There is provision to add newly discovered cases of H-R weeds. *> I. Heap, International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds, PO Box 1365, Corvallis, OR 97339, USA. Phone: 1-541-929-6636. IanHeap@weedsmart.com . PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES


, Brookings, SD, USA * Lead and coordinate Crop and Entomology Research Unit of the USDA Northern Grain Insects Research Lab (NGIRL). * Responsible for all aspects of research, personnel, facilities, technology transfer and budgetary matters; function as main contact person for all activities and principal liaison with other research entities, industry, and the public. * Requires: appropriate education and research background; knowledge of environmentally sustainable cropping and pest management for regional crops; familiarity with regional farming practices; documented leadership experience; high level of communication ability. * Contact: J. Jones, phone: 1-970-492-7002. Or, D. Robinson, USDA-ARS, HR Div., Attn: ARS-X4W-0068, 5601 Sunnyside Ave., Stop 5106, Beltsville, MD 20705-5106, USA. Also, see: www.afm.ars.usda.gov thanks to L. Hesler for information. PLANT PATHOLOGIST

, Logan, UT, USA * Conduct extension/research (75/25 percent) on economically important plant pathogens in Utah; provide in-service staff training; maintain outreach to major stakeholders; develop educational materials; participate in plant diagnoses; take part in state IPM activities; develop a research program. * Requires: PhD or equivalent in plant pathology or related field; demonstrated experience in plant disease management; evidence of ability to sustain an extramurally funded research program; ability to collaborate with other disciplines; high capability in various forms of communication. * Contact: D.G. Alston, Plant Pathologist Search, Dept. of Biol., 5305 Old Main Hill, Utah State Univ., Logan UT 84322-5305, USA. DianeA@biology.usu.edu .Web: www.biology.usu.edu .


, Mississippi State, MS, USA * Develop techniques for managing populations of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) (Asian lady beetle); monitor movement from feeding to over wintering sites; test efficacy of "push/pull" management techniques; conduct other related research. * Requires: recent PhD in entomology or closely related field; knowledge of insect behavior, chemistry, and biostatistics. * Contact: E.W. Riddick, USDA/ARS, 810 Hwy. 12 East, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5367, USA. EWRiddick@ars.usda.gov . Fax: 1-662-320-7571.Phone: 1-662-320-7382.www.afm.ars.usda.gov

thanks to E.G. Rajotte for information. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES


A U.S. firm offers two sizes of award winning multi-purpose, rubber-tracked, low impact and high flotation liquid or granular application machines. Both the model TR2 and TR4 Tracker have "on-the-go" track width control, and heavy duty hydrostatic transmissions powered by name brand 4-cylinder diesel engines. A unique modular implement mount allows rapid change-over from a liquid spray system, with up to a 18.3m (60 ft.) wide boom, to a large capacity granule spreader. Spray and granules can be delivered at above-ground heights ranging from 51cm (20in.) up to 2.7m (9ft.). Spray booms fold into a compact position for transport. Ground clearance can be adjusted for straddling row, vine, or smaller tree crops up to 2.3m (7.5ft) tall. All controls are centralized in a pressurized cab with charcoal filtration. A variety of optional implements (hedgers, flail mowers, and others) are available. *> GK Machine Co., PO Box 427, Donald, OR 97020-0427, USA. Fax: 1-503-678-5693. sales@gkmachine.com . Phone: 1-503-678-5525. Web: www.gkmachine.com .
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM



In a compact summary, eight U.S. scientists assess the state of "Insect Resistance to Bt Crops: Lessons Learned from the First Seven Years," and conclude that the success of Bt crops, while exceeding expectations, remains susceptible to resistance development by targeted pest arthropods. B.E. Tabashnik, et al, writing in ISB NEWS REPORT, note that "field-evolved resistance to Bt crops has not been documented yet," though lab-selected resistance to Bt toxins has been established. Non-Bt crop refuges grown in proximity to Bt crops are cited as being important to delaying pest resistance though not an ideal strategy in all cases. Hence, the authors advocate vigilance in efforts to monitor and delay resistance and humility about future predictions. excerpted, with thanks, from ISB NEWS REPORT, November 2003. THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

General "A Degree-day Concept for Estimating Degradation Time Under Field Conditions," Jackson, S.H. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 59(10), 1125-1133, October 2003. "Uncertain Control of Dynamic Economic Threshold in Pest Management," Bor, Y.J. * AGRIC. SYST., 78(1), 105-118, October 2003. "Value Judgements and Risk Comparisons: The Case of Genetically Engineered Crops," Thompson, P.B. * PLANT. PHYSIOL., 132(1), 10-16, May 2003. See: www.plantphysiol.org Phytopathology

"Molecular Tools to Study Epidemiology and Toxicology of Fusarium Head Blight of Cereals," Nicholson, P., et al. * EURO. JRNL. OF PLANT PATH., 109(7), 691-703, September 2003. "Suppression of Important Pea Diseases by Bacterial Antagonists," Wang, H., et al. * BIOCON., 48(4), 447-460, August 2003. Weed Management

"A Bio-economic Model of Long-run Striga Control with an Application to Subsistence Farming in Mali," Mullen, J.D., et al. * INTERNAT. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 49(3), 257-264, July 2003. "Combining Physical, Cultural and Biological Methods: Prospects for Integrated Non-chemical Weed Management Strategies," Hatcher, P.E., and B. Melander. * WEED RESCH., 43(5), 303-322, October 2003. "Weed Control as a Rationale for Restoration: The Example of Tallgrass Prairie," Blumenthal, D.M., et al. * CONSERV. ECOL., 7(1), art. #6, June 2003. See: www.consecol.org Entomology

"Potential Manageable Exploitation of Social Wasps, Vespula Spp. (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), as Generalist Predators of Insect Pests," Donovan, B.J. * INTERNAT. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 49(4), 281-285, October-December 2003. "Testing IPM Protocols for Helicoverpa armigera in Processing Tomato: Egg-count vs. Fruit-count Based Damage Thresholds using Bt or Chemical Insecticides," Torres-Vila, L.M., et al. * CROP PROT., 22(8), 1045-1052, September 2003. Bt sub-Section "A Screening Level Approach for Nontarget Insect Risk Assessment: Transgenic Bt Corn Pollen and the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae)," Wolt, J.D., et al. * ENVIRON. ENTOMOL., 32(2), 237-246, April 2003. "Assessing the Risks of Insect Resistant Transgenic Plants on Entomophagous Arthropods: Bt-maize Expressing Cry1Ab as a Case Study," Dutton, A., et al. * BIOCONT., 48(6), 611-636, December 2003. Nematology

"Development of a New Application Apparatus for Entomopathogenic Nematodes," Piggott, S.J., et al. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 59(12), 1334-1348, December 2003. Vertebrate Management

"The Effects of Fence Voltage and the Type of Conducting Wire on the Efficacy of an Electric Fence to Exclude Badgers Meles meles ," Poole, D.W., et al. * CROP PROT., 23(1), 27-33, January 2004.
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Regional Newsletter Broadens Its Scope

The Northeastern (Regional) Pest Management Center has revamped, expanded, and re-titled its internal electronic newsletter. The former "NEPMC Insider" has morphed into "NEPMC On Target," and is now replete with interactive web links to the sites of the various states collaborating in the northeastern center. The latest issue (vol. 3, no. 12, December 2003) also has been broadened to include links to topics and materials at the other three regional IPM centers. "On Target" resides at: www.nepmc.org .*> J.R. VanKirk, eml: JRV1@cornell.edu .
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2004 (N) 09-20 February * TRAINING COURSE ON BIOPESTICIDES FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE: DISCOVERY, MASS PRODUCTION AND FIELD DELIVERY, Selangor, MALAYSIA. Contact: S.S. Sastroutomo, c/o CABI-SEARC, PO Box 210, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, MALAYSIA. S.Soetikno@cabi.org . Fax: 60-3-894-36400. Phone: 60-3-894-33641.

(N) May * INVASIVE PLANTS IN MEDITERRANEAN ECOSYSTEMS, Rodos Is., GREECE. Contact: S. Brunel, "Plantes Envahissantes," AME/Conservatoire Bot. National, 163 rue Auguste Broussonnet, 34090 Montpellier, FRANCE. Brunel@ame-lr.org . Fax: 33-4-992-32-212. Phone: 33-4-992-32214. Web: www.ame .

(N) 08-11 June * INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS, "Species Exchanges between Eastern Asia and North America: Threats to Environment and Economy," Beijing, CHINA. Contact: S. Miao, SMiao@sino-eco.org . Phone: 1-561-682-6638. Fax: 1-561-682-5382. Web: bisobi.sino .

(N) 06-10 September * INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE RESEARCH INTO BEHAVIOUR AND ECOLOGY OF APHIDOPHAGOUS INSECTS (Ecology of Apidophaga 9), Ceske Budejovice, CZECH REPUBLIC. Contact: I. Hodek, Inst. Entomol. Acad. Sci., Branisovska 31, 37005 Ceske Budejovice, CZECH REPUBLIC. Hodek@entu.cas.cz . Fax: 420-38-43625. Phone: 420-38-777-5322. Web: www.entu.cas.cz .

(N) 26-30 September * 8TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THE BIOSAFETY OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS, Montpellier, FRANCE. Contact: ISBGMO, Lab. of Plant Cell and Molecular Biol., INRA Versailles, 78026 Versailles Cedex, FRANCE. Phone: 33-1-308-33730 isbgmo@versailles.inra.fr . Fax: 33-1-308-33728. Web: www.inra.fr


[R] 20-23 June * new information * 13TH SYMPOSIUM EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH SOCIETY, Bari, ITALY. Contact: Secretariat, c/o P. Montemurro, Dipart. di Sci. delle Produzioni Vegetali, Univ. degli Studi di Bari, Via Amendola 165/a, 70125 Bari, ITALY. secretariat@ewrs-symposium.com . Fax/phone: 39-080-544-2867. Web: www.ewrs 2007, and 2008

No (N) ew/[R]evised events (for above years) to cite in this issue.
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