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May 2004, Issue no. 125
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Transgenic Terms and Refugia Requirements

When maize/corn bearing inserted genes from the naturally soil dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) first appeared in 1996, attention focused on the promise of effectively managing key lepidopteran insect crop pests while significantly reducing chemical insecticide application. Eight years later the technology has been embraced in certain regions of the globe, but now with strong emphasis on the needs for insect resistance management, triggering confusion over terminology and procedure.

Entomologist K.L. Steffey, writing in a recent issue of "The Bulletin," an IPM-oriented, frequent newsletter from the Univ. of Illinois, observes that the concept what used to be simply "Bt corn" or "non-Bt corn" has become more complicated by development and availability of at least four types of transgenic corn hybrids, each expressing one, or a combination, of mostly but not all Bt derived proteins.

Originally "non-Bt corn" referred to hybrids that simply were nontransgenic. Dr. Steffey points out that now, because of product differences, the terms "Bt corn" and "non-Bt corn" are no longer as clearly descriptive as they were, in turn leading to confusion over which hybrids should or should not be planted in insect resistance management refugia to balance main crop transgenic hybrids.

a Of course, planting a refuge (mandated to be at least 20 percent of the area planted with the main "Bt corn") to an absolutely nontransgenic hybrid corn would meet refugia guidelines. But Steffey offers an example where a refuge can meet requirements by being planted to a "Bt corn" that expresses one protein, while the main crop is "Bt corn" that expresses a different protein. In other words, the refuge always must be planted with a hybrid that either: a) does not express any transgenic protein; or b) expresses a protein that is different from that of the main crop.

Steffey concludes that it is imperative to "understand the concept, principles, and requirements for insect resistance management, and use the Bt corn products accordingly." He believes that complying with the well established requirements for insect resistance management should enable growers to have the option of continue using transgenic Bt corn well into the future. *> K.L. Steffey, KSteffey@uiuc.edu . excerpted, with thanks, from The Bulletin, no. 4, art. 4, April 16, 2004, www.ipm.uiuc.edu

Australia Targets Aquatic Weeds

With federal funding through its Natural Heritage Trust, Australia recently established a 10-member National Aquatic Weed Management Group and named A. Petroeschevsky as national aquatic weeds management coordinator.

Three aquatic weed species anticipated to be named as national weeds of significance are: Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed); Salvinia spp. (salvinia); and, Cabomba caroliniana (cabomba).

The management group aims to increase awareness and cooperative efforts in integrated management of the three main weed species with a goal of reducing their spread and negative impacts. *> A. Petroeschevsky, Andrew.Petroeschevsky@agric.nsw.gov.au . excerpted, with thanks, from WeedWatch, March 2004. GLOBAL IPM SNAPSHOTS

An imported weevil has successfully controlled the invasive aquatic weed, Azolla filiculoides (red waterfern), in Southern Africa. *> A.J. McConnachie, AJMcConnachie@yahoo.com. @ Research in Canada will study reduced herbicide usage in canola that leaves a small base of late emerging weeds, attracts natural enemies of pest insects, and yields positive overall results for producers. *> L. Dosdall, Lloyd.Dosdall@ualberta.ca. @ A 3-year study on natural enemy conservation in cotton revealed that insect growth regulator compounds were more selective and facilitative of biologically based management than insecticides. *> S.E. Naranjo, SNaranjo@wcrl.ars.usda.gov. @ Economists forecast that, by 2014, 11 GM crops will be grown in Europe with sugarbeet, maize, and cotton leading the pack, each raised on up to 45 percent of the area planted to these crops. *> Crop Prot. Monthly, www.crop @ The essential oil of Nepeta cataria (catnip, catmint) is said to repel some insects and vertebrates, attract others (esp. cats), and be an aphid pheromone. *> W. Quarles, birc@igc.apc.org .
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

Helping to Thwart Invasive Plants

The City of Nedlands in Western Australia recently received arequest and a cheque, from an individual in another country with a similar environment, for a quantity of native wildflower seed. Nedlands responded, but in an unusually forthright, articulate, and appropriate manner given the global battle to stem the tide of invasive plant species. Here is the response letter's text, composed by Nedlands Bushcare Officer S.D. McCabe, and sent out with the authority, and over the signature, of Nedlands mayor L. Taylor:

"I understand the appreciation you have for our beautiful country and our unique flora, however, I am unwilling to send you the seeds you have requested.

"Our wonderful and diverse bushland is suffering under the strain of introduced species from countries with climates similar to our own. Many exotic plants have escaped from gardens and invaded bushland areas. These plants are a damaging curse that is very difficult to lift, as they become weeds that smother local wildflowers and severely damage the habitat of our precious wildlife. Weeds are a very serious and an extremely expensive issue not just here in Nedlands but right across Australia.

"I am aware that many Australian plants become weeds when planted beyond their natural borders and I cannot, in all conscience, risk contributing to anything that might compromise the health of the [country's] environment. As such, I am enclosing a cheque equivalent to the 20 Euro which was sent to us."

Yours sincerely, L. Taylor, Mayor, City of Nedlands, WA

reprinted, with permission, from Enviroweeds news group; thanks to S.D. McCabe (SMcCabe@nedlands.wa.gov.au ) and L. Taylor. PUBLICATIONS PERUSED (5 in this issue)

TWO VIEWS OF BIOCONTROL No less than 62 international authorities are represented in a 2003 work, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN IPM SYSTEMS IN AFRICA, produced to support the thesis that "biocontrol components provide a common basis for many integrated pest management (IPM) systems," though their importance varies depending on the particular system. The hardbound volume's 24 chapters present an authoritative view of crop protection, and significant attendant problems, in Africa. Editors P. Neuenschwander, et al, document the contributions of bio-IPM to African agriculture, but realistically also cite the hurdles and instances of failure. Arthropod management receives major attention, though weed management and pathogen management are included. A 16-page compilation of 64 color photos enhances the text which focuses on case studies and promising research outcomes. The 447-page book focuses on sub-Saharan Africa and covers biocontrol by naturally occurring and exotic agents, as well as (local) environmental manipulation.

Keynote presentations at the International Organization for Biological Control's 2002 international symposium, addressing recent developments in genetics and evolutionary biology and their relevance to biocontrol, form the basis for GENETICS, EVOLUTION AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL, a late 2003 publication. Twelve chapters delve into several themes including: pest and natural enemy genetic structure; molecular diagnostic tools in biocontrol; pest and natural enemy origins; and predicting pest and natural enemy evolutionary change. An international contingent of scientists provided the 288-page monograph's text as organized by editors L.E. Ehler, et al. The hardbound work probes new issues for the major approaches in applied biocontrol such as use of molecular genetics, mass rearing of transgenic agents for augmentative programs, and compatibility of transgenic crops and natural enemies in conservation biocontrol.

For both titles contact: *> Cabi Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. cabi@cabi.org . Fax: 44-0-1491-833508.Phone: 44-0-1491-832111. Web: www.cabi

NEW, EXPANDED LANDSCAPE IPM MANUAL The Univ. of California's Statewide IPM Program has produced yet another superb addition to its extensive collection of IPM manuals. The 326-page, 1994 edition of PESTS OF LANDSCAPE TREES AND SHRUBS, AN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDE provided highly useful text and visuals that have now, 10 years later, been expanded into the 501-page second edition containing 70 new sections for diseases, weeds, and insects/mites. The reader-friendly tree-and-shrub pest tables have been doubled to over 100, providing clear guidance for identifying and effectively managing common pest problems. The 2004, softbound work features more than 430 full color photos, plus 117 drawings, in addition to references and a glossary. High quality printing on coated, low-reflection paper stock enhances readability. The overall end result is a well organized, comprehensive, graphically appealing resource that is clearly a key IPM publication. *> ANR, Univ. of California, 701 San Pablo Ave., 2nd. floor, Oakland, CA 94608-1239, USA. Fax: 1-510-643-5470. danrcs@ucdavis.edu . Phone: 1-510-643-2431. Web: anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu.

RESEARCH TARGET: RODENTS Rodents have emerged as a significant agricultural pest throughout Southeast Asia during the past decade. A recent publication from the Australian Centre of International Agriculture (ACIAR) sets forth practical instructions for field methods associated with population studies of rodents and logically is entitled FIELD METHODS FOR RODENT STUDIES IN ASIA AND THE INDO-PACIFIC. The attractively presented 2003publication includes experimental design, trapping methods, safe handling of rats and mice, and techniques for assessing reproductive activity and rodent damage to crops. Authors K.P. Alpin, et al also provide a taxonomic key for rodents that are major agricultural pests in SE Asia and the Pacific region as well as other non-pest rodents. The 223-page volume is loaded with clear descriptions and illustrations as aids to identification, plus summaries of current knowledge, geographic distribution, diet, habits, and behavior for individual species. The 3-part book, ACIAR monograph MN100, can be freely downloaded from: www.aciar.gov.au or obtained from ACIAR. *> Communications, ACIAR, GPO Box 1571, Canberra ACT 2691, AUSTRALIA. comms@aciar.gov.au .

INVADERS OF THE ENVIRONMENT In addition to well recognized environmental villains, there is another, equally serious global threat: the accidental or intentional movement of living organisms from originating locales to environments wherein a lack of natural enemies can lead to population explosions that rapidly degrade ecoregions. One outcome of a meeting that explored his critically important emerging topic, labeled "biological pollution," is a 2004 softbound publication, BIOLOGICAL POLLUTION: AN EMERGING GLOBAL MENACE, that presents a broad spectrum of concerns to the conservation minded among us. Editor K.O. Britton arranges 10 chapters by a group of experts to introduce the "BP" concept, offer specific horrific examples, and lastly set forth existing defenses as well as proposed improvements. Written in nontechnical language, the 124-page work includes over 20 black/white photos, and concludes with a rousing chapter entitled, "Fighting Back!," encouraging problem recognition, prevention, and elimination through both global and local action. *> APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., Saint Paul, MN 55121-2097, USA. aps@scisoc.org . Fax: 1-651-454-0766.Phone: 1-651-454-7250. Web: www.shopapspress.org WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES

SPREADING IPM WORLDWIDE The U.S. government funded IPM Collaborative Research Support Program (IPMCRSP) recently published no. 5 in the IPM CRSProgress Report series, "IPM CRSP and the Global Spread of IPM." The text and color photos of this 4-page document chronicle the program's international linkages, activities, and accomplishments. *> IPMCRSP, 1060 Litton Reaves Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Fax: 1-540-231-3519.ipm-dir@vt.edu . Phone: 1-540-231-3513.Web: www.ag.vt.edu .

IPM IN THE STATE OF MICHIGAN The spring 2004 issue (vol. 10, no. 1) of "The IPM Report," from Michigan State Univ. (MSU) incorporates the MSU IPM Program 2003 Annual Report, a recapitulation of the year's activities and accomplishments. The report emphasizes the maze of partnerships and joint efforts generated "to bring better pest management to Michigan." The online document can be found at: www.ipm.msu.edu . An example of the IPM program's collaborative work is reflected in a new website grapes.msu.edu designed as a single information source for the state's juice and wine grape growers and featuring heavy emphasis on IPM within an integrated vineyard management framework. The attractive site offers numerous links such as those for identifying common diseases, insect and mite pests, nematodes, and beneficial organisms (but sadly nothing readily apparent on weed management). *> J.N. Landis, IPM Program, B18 FS&T Bldg., MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824-1302, USA. LandisJ@msue.msu.edu . Phone: 1-517-353-4951.

SOYBEAN APHID: IN DEPTH REVIEW The March 2004 (vol. 97, no. 2) edition of the ANNALS OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA includes a special feature on Aphis glycines (soybean aphid) with nine papers that present a variety of information ranging from biology to biocontrol. See: esa.edoc.com .

ON-LINE INFORMATION WREN Media (World Radio for the ENvironment) sponsors NEW AGRICULTURIST On-Line, a wide ranging periodic, free information source operating under the banner of "reporting agriculture for the 21st century" and found at: www.new The last two issues, 04/1 and 04/2, have devoted their "focus on ." section to weeds and weed management. PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

PLANT PROTECTION EXTENSIONIST, Suva, FIJI * Assist with the effective transfer of appropriate plant protection (i.e., crop protection) technology, knowledge, and skills relevant to community target groups; develop extension procedures, methodologies, and training activities; evaluate extension programs. * Requires: degree in extension or community development, or an agricultural biologic science with a focus on crop protection; six years of professional extension experience; demonstrable skills in participatory extension practices; ability in written and oral communication and computing; must be a citizen of an EU, African, Caribbean, or Pacific nation that is a signatory to the Lome IV Convention. * Contact: Senior Deputy Director-General, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Private Mail Bag, Suva, FIJI. Fax: 679-370-021. recruitsuva@spc.int . (By 15 May 2004). EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

CATALOG FOR INSECT MONITORING A U.S. firm offers a broad selection of insect monitoring systems "for the professional grower" including the latest spiral disrupters, sprayable pheromones, and other items. A free 30-page catalog lists dozens of traps, lures, kits, sweep nets, beating sheets, ground cloths, bird nets, and related items for 2004. A short list of biocontrol organisms are offered as well as magnifiers and tally meters. *> Great Lakes IPM, Inc., 10220 Church Rd., Vestaburg, MI 48891-9746, USA. glipm@nethawk.com . Fax: 1-989-268-5311.Phone: 1-989-268-5693. Web: www.greatlakesipm.com.
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM


General "Plant Competition in Pest-suppressive Intercropping Systems Complicates Evaluation of Herbivore Responses," Bukovinszky, T., et al. * AGRIC., ECOSYS., & ENVIRON., 102(2), 185-196, April 2004. "Weed and Insect Communities in Wheat Crops with Different Management Practices," de la Fuente, E.B., et al. * AGRON. JRNL., 95(6), 1542-1549, November-December 2003. Phytopathology

"A New Approach to Evaluate Relative Resistance and Tolerance of Tomato Cultivars to Begomoviruses Causing the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease in Spain," Rubio, L., et al. * PLANT PATH., 52(6), 763-769, December 2003. "Biological Control of Black Rot Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris of Cabbage in Tanzania with Bacillus Strains," Massomo, S.M.S., et al. * JRNL. OF PHYTOPATH., 152(2), 98-105, February 2004. "Comparison of Spray Deposits and Efficacy Against Powdery Mildew of Aerial and Ground-based Spraying Equipment in Viticulture," Viret, O., et al. * CROP PROT., 22(8), 1023-1032, September 2003. Weed Science

"Cover Crops Reduce Weed Seedbanks in Maize-cassava Systems in Southwestern Nigeria," Ekeleme, F., et al. * WEED SCI., 51(5), 774-480, September 2003. "Predicting Yield Loss in Maize Fields and Developing Decision Support for Post-emergence Herbicide Applications," Lemieux, C., et al. * WEED RESCH., 43(5), 323-332, October 2003. "Synergistic Interaction of Soilborne Plant Pathogens and Root-attacking Insects in Classical Biological Control of an Exotic Rangeland Weed," Caesar, A.J. * BIOL. CONT., 78(1), 144-153, September 2003. Entomology

"Effectiveness of Twelve Insecticides Applied Topically to Diapausing Larvae of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.," Pasquier, D., and P-J. Charmillot. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 60(3), 305-308, March 2004. "Influence of Pesticide Treatments on the Dynamics of Whiteflies and Associated Parasitoids in Snap Bean Fields," Manzano, M.R., et al. * BIOCONT., 48(6), 685-693, December 2003. "Occurrence and Direct Control Potential of Parasitoids and Predators of the Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Maize in the Subtropical Lowlands of Mexico," Hoballah, M.E., et al. * AGRIC. AND FOREST. ENTOM., 6(1), 83-88, February 2004. Bt sub-Section

"Strategy for Orchard Use of Bacillus thuringiensis while Minimizing Impact on Choristoneura rosaceana Parasitoids," Cossentine, J.E., et al. * ENTOMOLOGIA EXP. ET APPLIC., 109(3), 205-210, December 2003. "Sustainability of Insect Resistance Management Strategies for Transgenic Bt Corn," Glaser, J.A., and S.R. Matten. * BIOTECH. ADV., 22(1), 45-69, December 2003.
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Vegetable Production IPM for U.S. Midwest

A lively and informative website hosted by the Univ. of Minnesota serves as a vegetable production IPM resource for the Midwestern U.S. by providing free timely information about all aspects of vegetable crop IPM emphasizing pest insect management and related matters of interest to the region.

The site, better known as "VegEdge," www.vegedge.umn.edu pest (insect, weed, disease) fact sheets, research updates, historical data for pest insect infestations, and a wide wedge of additional information to assist growers, processors, and crop consultants in making daily IPM decisions.

The opening page presents an interactive map showing 24 hyperlinks to newsletters and other information sources in 12 U.S. states and Ontario Province in Canada. Clicking on any of the sites promptly brings up a regional, linked site, many of which have additional links, thus vastly broadening the scope of available information.

VegEdge doesn't hedge its bets and so includes a link to the free, electronic Radcliffe's IPM World Textbook (ipmworld.umn.edu a 66-chapter compilation of IPM topics technical, historic, and scientific. The site (also available in a Spanish language version) was conceived to provide an electronic alternative or complement to printed texts. Thematically, the site aims for "state of the art information from the world's leading experts on all aspects of IPM."

Taking the pledge to maintain VegEdge are W.D. Hutchison and S.W. Burkness Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Minnesota, who, in collaboration with colleagues in other states, strive to dredge up and make available a sledge load of useful IPM information. (Sorry, the reviewer clearly went over the ledge.) *> W.D. Hutchison, Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Minnesota, 1980 Folwell Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. hutch002@umn.edu. Fax: 1-612-625-5299.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2004 (N) 25-28 July * 5TH INTERNATIONAL CARIBBEAN CONFERENCE and 87TH FLORIDA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY MEETING, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA. Contact: S.L. Lapointe, USDA-ARS, Hort. Resch. Lab., 2001 South Rock Rd., Ft. Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Phone: 1-772-462-5914. SLapointe@ushrl.ars.usda.gov. Fax: 1-772-462-5986.

(N) 01-05 August * 37TH CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE FITOPATOLOGIA, Gramado, RS, BRAZIL. Contact: F. Nicolini, Univ. de Passo Fundo, Secretaria do 37th CBF, Fac. de Agron. e Med. Vet., Caixa Postal 611, 99001-970, Passo Fundo, RS, BRAZIL. seccb@upf.br. Web: www.upf.br 08-12 August * 12TH INTERNATIONAL AUCHENORRHYNCHA CONGRESS and concurrent 6TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LEAFHOPPERS AND PLANTHOPPERS OF ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE, Berkeley, CA, USA. Contact: A. Purcell, Div. of Insect Biol., 201 Wellman MC3112, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3112, USA. Fax: 1-510-642-7428. Phone: 1-510-642-7285. Purcell@nature.berkeley.edu. Web: nature.berkeley.edu 12-15 September * AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 2004, Cologne, GERMANY. Contact: Phytowelt GmbH, ABIC 2004 BioCampus, Nattermannallee 1, D-50829 Cologne, GERMANY. contact@ABIC2004.org. Fax: 49-2-162-89215. Phone: 49-2-162-77859. Web: www.abic2004.org. (N) ew/[R]evised events for these years to cite in this issue.
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