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June 2004, Issue no. 126
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

IPMEurope Gets Second Wind

A re-energized IPMEurope (the European Group for Integrated Pest Management in Development Cooperation) recently announced that the organization has developed and published an expanded (attractive, too) website at www.ipmeurope.org , that well-known German scientist G. Fleisher has accepted the position of secretary, and that J. Orphal has accepted a position with the IPMEurope secretariat.

IPMEurope serves as a network for coordinating European support to IPM in research and development involving European Commission institutions, European Union (EU) member states, and EU associate states Norway and Switzerland. GTZ, the German federal government's organization for international technical cooperation and development, continues to act as host for IPMEurope.

One of IPMEurope's key activities is responsibility for creating and coordinating task forces (TFs) focused on development needs in IPM-related areas. Currently an invitation has been extended to members of the European scientific community, non-governmental organizations, and private sector enterprises to submit proposals for TFs in 2004 and 2005 based on IPM issues with which their institutions are involved and which fit the established proposal criteria posted on the IPMEurope website.

TFs address important pest management issues and provide a mechanism for delivery of outputs (guidelines also on the website), either by improved understanding or through the "delivery of development." Funding of up to Euro 25,000 per task force is available.

Among the other IPMEurope activities is participation in the IPM information partnership which currently includes the special program on IPM sponsored by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, and the U.S. Agency for International Development's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program.

IPMEurope also provides guidance to the European Commission in the critical areas of IPM policy and program support within Europe. The intent is to broaden awareness of the linkage between research and extension as well as the importance of grower adoption of appropriate IPM tactics. *> IPMEurope Secretariat, GTZ, PO Box 5180, 65726 Eschborn, GERMANY. Jana.Orphal@gtz.de . Fax: 49-0-6196-79-6103. Phone: 49-0-6196-79-1457. GLOBAL IPM SNAPSHOTS

Intercropping Sesamum indicum (sesame) with Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. (pearl millet) in sandy soils of the West African Sahel significantly reduced Striga hermonthica infestation of the cereal. *> D.E. Hess, DHess@purdue.edu. @ Trials showed the tortoise beetle Charidotis pygmaea Klug) to be unsuitable for biocontrol of the weed Lantana camara L. in Africa. *> H.E. Williams, riethes@plant2.agric.za. @ IAPPS, the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences, has conducted a self-assessment of its structure, activities, and goals. *> M. Tamo, M.Tamo@cgiar.org. @ Kaolin-based particle film applied to Arachis hypogaea (groundnut/peanut) had little or no effect on various pest insects and pathogens. *> J.P. Wilson, JWilson@tifton.usda.gov. @ A proposed draft "European Biotech Manifesto" will be submitted at the forthcoming 2004 Agricultural Biotechnology International Conference. *> K. Ammann, KAmann@ips.unibe.ch .
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

IPM Loses a Giant

The global IPM thrust lost one of its most innovative scientists and staunchest advocates when Univ. of Massachusetts (USA) entomologist R.J. Prokopy died suddenly on 14 May 2004.

Not only did Dr. Prokopy teach, research, and develop IPM tactics, he avidly practiced them on his own thriving apple orchard. IPM methods his academic research group spun off received an on-the-ground trial and polishing in is own orchard before any recommendations were offered to commercial apple growers.

During his highly productive career Prokopy received numerous awards, honors, and grants including both Fulbright and Guggenheim Fellowships. He authored well over 400 publications and served as an inspiration to numerous graduate students.

He was admired and respected by colleagues. For example, long time IPM entomologist M. Kogan vividly recalls the Entomological Society of America Founders Memorial Award lecture Prokopy presented in 1998. "His lecture on the life and work of J.S. Kennedy," Kogan remembers, "not only was a model of elegance and sincere admiration for a friend and mentor, it departed from the trend of previous lectures and instead focused on the honoree, only at the very end making the transition to his own original and outstanding work."

W. Autio, professor of plant and soil science at the Univ. of Massachusetts, did not hesitate to say that, "Ron was probably one of the two leaders of Integrated Pest Management in the country," and pointed out his extensive international research collaboration as well.

Prokopy's research centered on apple pests, especially Rhagoletis pomonella (Wash) (apple maggot fly). He invented the "red sticky trap," a lightweight plastic ball that captures R. pomonella without use of chemicals, and, according to entomologist M. Baker, "transformed apple growing, radically reducing the need for multiple pesticide sprays. He was," Baker said, "a giant in his field."

Dr. Kogan reflected that, "In a time when there seems to exist a cult of selfishness, Ron's generosity and selflessness made him stand out as a model." Fittingly, a memorial celebration of Prokopy's life and potluck dinner were held amidst the healthy trees in his orchard where he practiced what he preached. thanks to all who contributed to this article. @

The Australasian Plant Pathology Society, serving Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, plus Indian, Pacific, and Asian regions, proclaims: "Plant Health Is Earth's Wealth."

PUBLICATIONS PERUSED (3 in this issue)

IPM: A WORLD VIEW There are dozens of books that variously refer to IPM, fewer that include specific IPM sections, and fewer still that are singularly and fully focused on contemporary IPM. A 2003 title, INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN THE GLOBAL ARENA, ranks high among the latter group in presenting both the issues and institutions on the forefront of IPM research and development worldwide. Editor K.M. Maredia and colleagues have drawn upon an international contingent of 127 knowledgeable authors to describe case studies and experiences with IPM from every continent, many regions, and numerous countries. The nearly 40 chapters of this 560-page monograph address topics ranging from emerging issues to a set of conclusions and recommendations to address constraints to IPM development and implementation, such as a lack of evaluation and documentation for IPM's "deliverables" and promotion of its potential benefits, sandwiched around a bushel of geographically oriented experiences. This landmark, hardbound volume blends theory, in-the-field-and-lab actualities, and future vision to generate a unique reference. *> CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. cabi@cabi.org . Phone: 44-0-1491-832111. Fax: 44-0-1491-833508. Web: www.cabi .

BIOCONTROL OVERVIEW Applied biocontrol is one of several key strategies in the IPM toolbox. A new (2003) monograph, PREDATORS AND PARASITOIDS, examines the role of natural enemies in crop protection as an IPM concept, with editors/scientists O. Koul and G.S. Dhaliwal noting that biocontrol, as both concept and applied practice, is too often shoved aside in managed agriculture. Based on nine chapters by specialists in biocontrol, this hardbound text considers all the expected topics augmentation, multiparasitism, synergism and more. The monograph's 199 pages offer a useful compilation of current biocontrol activities. *> CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Blvd. NW, Boca Raton, FL 33431-9868, USA. KLewis@crcpress.com . Fax: 1-877-868-3083. Phone: 1-877-272-7737. Web: www.crcpress.com .

THE COST OF WEEDS What is the cost of weeds to a country? To answer that question for one nation, the Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management (CRC Weeds) commissioned an exhaustive study that concluded weeds cost Australia a staggering A billion (yes, with a "B") on average each year. In their report, THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF WEEDS IN AUSTRALIA, a research team of J. Sinden, et al pegged annual weed costs at no less than A.5 billion and up to A.5 billion dependent on seasonal conditions, commodity prices, and weed infestation levels. The researchers considered a panoply of factors: weed control and management costs; impacts on crop quality and livestock production; production losses; infrastructural costs; environmental impacts; and more esoteric values such as welfare within an economic framework. Step by step, the study builds its case for the huge cost of this "national problem" showing, for example, the percent of Australia occupied by each of 20 weed culprits ranging from a high of over 12 percent for Parkinsonia aculeata to fractions for other species. The attractively designed, 2004 publication, CRC Tech Series #8, is freely downloadable from www.weeds.crc.org.au or can be ordered from CRC Weeds. The report's 55 pages constitute Australia's best scientific measurement of the seriousness and cost of waging war on weeds. *> CRC Weeds, Waite Campus, Univ. of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, AUSTRALIA. CRCWeeds@adelaide.edu.au . Fax: 61-08-8303-7311. Phone; 61-08-8303-6590. WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES

WEEDING THE GARDEN ORGANICALLY Following the philosophy that "understanding the biology of weeds is critical to organic weed management," staff of the Crop and Soil Science Dept. at Cornell Univ. (USA) have organized "The Organic Weed Management Website" at www.css.cornell.edu . The site aims to provide organic gardeners with useful weed background and management information. The heart of the site is a weed database containing information on many plants that are considered common garden weeds and includes identification with a photo, management suggestions, and other information. There are other ancillary features, all offered as aids to effectively managing unwanted plants.

PHEROMONE LIST REACTIVATED Beginning January 2004, The Pherolist, a long running (since 1986) database of chemicals identified from sex pheromone glands of female Lepidopteran insects and other chemicals attractive to male moths, gained a new operating group and website via www as maintained by MISTRA (Stockholm, Sweden) and the IOBC Working Group "Pheromones and Other Semiochemicals in Integrated Production." The group, P. Witzgall, et al, note that while the list will "never be complete," an effort is underway to continue to update and expand it. Interested parties are invited to contact the Group if a reference is found to be missing. Photos (as GIF or JPEG files) are equally welcome and will be acknowledged. Future planned updates will also include pheromones of other insect orders. *> Peter Witzgall, SLU, Box 44, S-230 53 Alnarp, SWEDEN. Fax: 46-40-461991.Peter.Witzgall@vv.slu.se . Phone: 46-40-415307.

RESISTANCE TO PESTICIDES DATABASE The resistant pest management team at the Center for Integrated Plant Systems, Michigan State Univ. (USA), has developed The Database of Arthropods Resistant to Pesticides. This massive body of information (over 3,000 records) is a web-based compilation of resistance cases (covering insects, spiders, and mites) dating from 1914 to the present. Entries note when the resistance was first discovered for a specific time and place. The basis for the database is an out-of-print document by Georghiou and Lagunes-Tejada, now massively supplemented by recent data from literature reviews. The website, www.pesticideresistance.org can be searched by species, pesticide, region, or citation. A list of frequently asked questions frames the scope and nature of the material. Access to the site is open to all and was made possible by grants from a number of sponsoring organizations. *> M.E. Whalon, B11 CIPS, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1311, USA. Whalon@msu.edu . Phone: 1-517-353-9425.

METHYL BROMIDE TECHNOLOGIES The latest issue (vol.9(2), Fall 2003) of METHYL BROMIDE ALTERNATIVES focuses on reports from the U.S./Canada working group on methyl bromide alternatives and includes several novel approaches including a lightning fast scrubbing technology. A web version resides at: www.ars.usda.gov . *> S. Dunham, USDA, ARS, Information Staff, 5601 Sunnyside Ave., Beltsville, MD 20705-5129,USA. Fax: 1-301-504-1641. PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

WEED RESEARCH OPPORTUNITY The Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management (CRC Weeds) www.weeds.crc.org.au invites expressions of interest from research and development groups to pursue opportunities for manipulating reproduction in weeds through the use of innovative techniques. Respondents should indicate: an outline of the work that would be conducted; personnel qualifications and skills available; research environment and capacity; infrastructure and collaborative linkages; and, specific resources that would be assigned to this program. Funding available is at least A0K per year for 3 years. *> K. Scott, CRC Weeds, PMB 1, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond, SA 5064, AUSTRALIA. Kelly.Scott@adelaide.edu.au . Fax: 61-08-8303-7311. Phone: 61-08-8303-6590. thanks to S. Lloyd for information. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

INNOVATIONS IN INSECT MANAGEMENT Stressing targeted insect control delivery systems, a UK-based firm offers "award-winning, cost effective and innovative solutions" for control of pest insects in agricultural as well as other settings. Exosect has developed a range of insect management systems based on the concept of electrostatic and bio-magnetic attraction utilizing powders derived from waxes that strongly adhere to insect cuticle, coupled with low dose insecticides and appropriate lures. Part of the approach involves exposed insects transporting insecticidal materials back to nests and transferring the materials to other insects through social interactions. A wide range of IPM-compatible key insect pest management products have been developed including Auto-Confusion, an approach said to be an improvement over mating disruption due to use of fewer pheromone dispensers and lower costs, making the system a viable alternative to growers who otherwise have not adopted pheromone technology due to economic restraints. *> Exosect Ltd., 2 Venture Rd., Chilworth Sci. Park, Southampton, Hampshire SO16 7NP, UK. info@exosect.com . Fax: 44-0-23-8076-3828. Phone: 44-0-8076-3838. Web: www.exosect.com .
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM


IPM LESSONS LEARNED IN AFRICA Experience arising from a farming systems IPM project in Southern Africa invalidated a "blueprint" approach for IPM that assumed insect pests were the major constraint for smallholder farm production. In "Learning from Failure: Smallholder Farming Systems and IPM in Malawi," (AGRIC. SYST, 79(1), 31-54, January 2004), A. Orr and J.M. Ritchie report that smallholder farmers were more concerned with other matters than adopting procedures to manage insects. Another key finding: IPM strategies, if they are clearly linked to technologies which raise cash incomes, are more likely to be accepted by smallholder farmers. The authors also note that project learning usually takes second place to technical results; where initial expectations are not met, donors and scientists are often reticent about exploring why that occurred as evidenced by attempts to redesign this IPM project being viewed as threatening to the donor agency. excerpted, with thanks, from material provided by J.M. Ritchie. THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

General "Regulating Transgenic Crops: A Comparative Analysis of Different Regulatory Processes," Jaffe, G. * TRANSGENIC RESCH., 13(1), 05-19, February 2004. @ "Safeguarding ProductionLosses in Major Crops and the Role of Crop Protection," Oerke, E.-C., and H.-W. Dehne. * CROP PROT., 23(4), 275-285, April 2004. Phytopathology

"Delivery Methods for Introducing Endophytic Bacteria into Maize," Bressan, W., and M.T. Boges. * BIOCONT., 49(3), 315-322, June 2004. @ "Farmers' Cultural Practices and Management of Potato Late Blight in Kenya Highlands: Implications for Development of Integrated Disease Management," Nyankanga, R.O.,_et al. * INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 50(2), 135-144, April-June 2004. Weed Science

"Development and Control of Weeds in Arable Farming Systems," Gerowitt, B. * AGRIC., ECOSYS. & ENVIRON., 98(1-3), 247-254, September 2003. @ "Real-time Weed Detection, Decision Making and Patch Spraying in Maize, Sugarbeet, Winter Wheat and Winter Barley," Gerhards, R., and S. Christensen. * WEED RESCH., 43(6), 385-392, December 2003. Entomology

"Biological Control of Cereal Aphids in North America and Mediating Effects of Host Plant and Habitat Manipulations," Brewer, M.J., and N.C. Elliott. * ANN. REV. OF ENTOM., 49, 219-242, 2004. @ "Lethal Effects of Biological Insecticide Applications on Nontarget Lepidopterans in Two Appalachian Forests," Rastall, K., et al. * ENVIRON. ENTOMO., 32(6), 1364-1369, December 2003. @ "Roles of Bootstrap Resampling, Measure of Central Tendency, and Method for Calculating Thermal Units when Developing Phenology Models for Pest Management," Legg, D.E., et al. * INTERNAT. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 49(4), 319-325, October-December 2003. Bt sub-Section "Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin (Cry1Ab) has no Direct Effect on Larvae of the Green Lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)," Romeis, J., et al. * JRNL. OF INSECT PHYSIO., 50(2-3), 175-183, February-March 2004. @ "Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Location of Refugia to Manage Resistance in Bt Transgenic Crops," Cerda, H., and D.J. Wright. * AGRIC., ECOSYS., & ENVIRON., 102(2), 163-174, April 2004.
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Map Links All U.S. State IPM Sites

A recently evolved information tool available to parties interested in IPM developments in any one of the 50 U.S. states is an interactive listing of state IPM homepages. A mouse click on the map at www.ipmcenters.org promptly brings up that state's current site for IPM information.

While many states have a dedicated IPM homepage or site some are quite expansive and graphically appealing, some less detailed and visually enhanced others have opted for variants and alternative approaches to addressing IPM. A few states have yet to designate or record an official IPM site, even though the state may well be engaged in extensive IPM activity.

Staff at the NSF Center for Integrated Pest Management, based at North Carolina State Univ., engineered the U.S. national IPM site and its expanding array of linkages, utilizing sponsorship of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service. *> cipm@ncsu.edu. Key Role for U.S. IPM Road Map

The latest iteration of the U.S. Road Map for Integrated Pest Management (RM-IPM) was published on 17 May 2004 and can be found at and printed from www.pmcenters.org . Initial development of the document began in February 2002.

The goal of the RM-IPM is "to increase nationwide communication and efficiency through information exchanges among federal and non-federal IPM practitioners and service providers." These include land managers, growers, structural pest managers, and public and wildlife health officials. The intent is apply IPM approaches to all areas including "agricultural, structural, ornamental, turf, museums, public and wildlife health pests, and encompass terrestrial and aquatic invasive species."

The multi-faceted RM-IPM envisions a key role for the four U.S. regional IPM centers in both IPM development and implementation as well as information dissemination and data collection. excerpted, with thanks, from the RM-IPM website.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2004 (N) 08-09 July * 6TH AGRO CONFERENCE, BEHAVIOUR OF PESTICIDES IN AIR, SOILS AND WATER, Cologne, GERMANY. Contact: S. Mummenbrauer, Die Akademie Fresenius GmbH, Alter Hellweg 46, D-44379 Dortmund, GERMANY. info@akademie-fresenius.de . Fax: 49-0-231-758-9653. Phone: 49-0-231-758-9650. Web: www.akademie

(N) 21-23 July * MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF FUNGAL PATHOGENS XV, Gregynog, UK. * Contact: S. Gurr, Sarah.Gurr@plant-sciences.oxford.ac.uk.


(N) 23-26 January * 43RD CONGRESS, SOUTHERN AFRICAN SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY, Western Cape, SOUTH AFRICA. Contact: C. Lennox, SASPP Congress, Private Bag X5017, Stellenbosch 7599, SOUTH AFRICA. vredcl@plant3.agric.za . Fax: 27-0-21-887-5096. Phone: 27-0-21-887-4690. Web: www.saspp.org 04-07 April * 9TH INTERNATIONAL PLANT VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, "Applying Epidemiological Research to Improve Virus Disease Management," Lima, PERU. Contact: Plant Virus Symposium, CIP, PO Box 1558, Lima 12, PERU. Fax: 51-1-317-5326. Phone: 51-1-349-6017. Web: cipotato.org . plant-virus-epidemiology-symp@cgiar.org.

(N) 12-16 June * 13TH INTERNATIONAL SCLEROTINIA WORKSHOP, Monterey, CA, USA. * Contact: S.T. Koike, Monterey County Extension, 1432 Abbott St., Salinas, CA 93901, USA. Fax: 1-831-758-3018. STKoike@ucdavis.edu . Phone: 1-831-759-7350.

(N) 05-10 September * 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF ALIEN PLANT INVASIONS, Katowice, POLAND. Contact: B. Tokarska-Guzik, Fac. of Biol. and Environ. Protection, Univ. of Silesia, Jagiellonska str 28, 40-032 Katowice, POLAND. Tokarska@us.edu.pl . Web: www.emapi.us.edu.pl 24-28 October * INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON LEPIDOPTEROUS CEREAL STEM AND COB BORERS IN AFRICA, Nairobi, KENYA. Contact: ICLCBA Secretariat, ICIPE, PO Box 30772, Nairobi, KENYA. iclcba@icipe.org . Fax: 254-20-860110. Web: www.icipe.org (N)ew or [R]evised event listings reported for these years.
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