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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


July 2004, Issue no. 127
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Cultural Practices for Grape Disease Control

Diseases can severely impact the success of grape culture. Several major fungi-caused diseases thrive in wet, humid weather. Growers, to successful manage diseases, need to know which are most likely to occur on their grape varieties and then take preventative action. High yields of top quality fruit depend on integrating cultural and chemical disease management practices, according to extension plant pathologist J.R. Hartman. Here are several cultural practices Dr. Hartman suggest to help control grape diseases:

Choose cultivars that resist diseases. Plant grapes on sites with sufficient air circulation and sun exposure; avoid sites with consistently wet soil. Use training systems that allow adequate air movement through the crop canopy. Begin new plantings with disease-free, virus indexed planting stock from a reputable source. When pruning dormant vines, remove and destroy diseased and dead wood. Remove and destroy any fruit "mummies" (dead, dry grapes) left on the vines or on the ground. Prevent early spring infections; as they appear, cut new infections out of shoots. Remove leaves from around grape clusters before bunch closing to promote sunlight penetration and ventilation. Avoid excessive nitrogen fertilization. Control weeds amongst grape vines and immediate areas. Remove and destroy wild grapes and abandoned grapevines adjacent to the vineyard. *> J.R. Hartman, Plant Path. Dept., Plant Sci. Bldg., Univ. of Kentucky, 1405 Veterans Blvd., Lexington, KY 40546-0312, USA. JHartman@uky.edu. Fax: 1-859-323-1961. Phone: 1-859-257-7445. excerpted, with thanks, from KENTUCKY PEST NEWS, March 2004, www.uky.edu Study Targets Significant Weeds

In 1999 AUSTRALIA identified 20 "Weeds of National Significance" (WoNS), plant species that experts judged to be causing significant environmental and economic damage: for a thorough background on the selection process, remarks, details, etc., see the WoNS website www.weeds.org.au Now the Australian government has launched an additional program of research and development for controlling 10 more WoNS, species not currently being studied under governmental auspices.

A national strategy is in place for all WoNS, and each has (or soon will have) a national coordinator whose main role is to help implement the strategy across the entire range and potential of the weed. *> R. Thorburn, Nat. Resource Mgmt. Policy Branch, Dept. of the Environ. and Heritage, GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA. Roberta.Thorburn@deh.gov.au.

GLOBAL IPM SNAPSHOTS

Some cotton pest insects can be significantly biocontrolled with low release rates (at or below 1.0 nymph per sq. m) of Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker) (assassin bug). *> P.R. Grundy, Paul.Grundy@dpi.qld.gov.au

Applying some herbicides during the early, cooler part of a summer day rather than the hottest will result in successful control instead of failure. *> P.A. Dotray, P-Dotray@tamu.edu.

Benefits of eradicating and excluding Thrips palmi from UK horticulture outweigh costs anywhere from 4:1 to 110:1 depending on key variables. *> A. MacLeod, A.MacLeod@csl.gov.uk.

A 4-year study found that incorporating grass combined with plastic mulching reduced Verticilium dahliae (verticilium wilt) 85 percent and was as effective as methyl bromide. *> J-K.C. Goud, JanKees.Goud@wur.nl.

Multiple negative comments about the weediness of_Sapium sebiferum (Chinese Tallowood) weediness caused an Australian city council to fully review its street tree planting policy. *> B.J. Hartley, sumac@hermes.net.au.


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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

Striga IPM Developed in Ghana

The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica is a major economic pest of cereal crops, especially maize, in many countries. To help tackle the problem in one region of GHANA, a Canadian farmer twice visited the area to both assess the extent of the S. hermonthica problem and to develop an IPM program for its control.

As a volunteer under the Farmer-to-Farmer program, C. Berube accepted two assignments in Ghana. Activities included field visits to 10 local client communities; in all, 262 men and 27 women received on-site training in multiple IPM tactics for S. hermonthica control. Assessment-training visits were followed by a 1-day short-course attended by 60 client farmers. Mr. Berube reports that "one of the most notable results realized during the project was the identification of plots serving to demonstrate the benefit of incorporating leguminous trap crops into rotation schemes."

Beyond site visits and the field day, Berube took extensive photos and videos to supplement existing extension and education materials. He also established contacts with representatives of other development agencies to help acquire other S. hermonthica IPM control technologies, especially improved maize seed.

A website, www3.telus.net provides a full account of the program including several full color photos.

Future activities, Berube suggests, should focus on "accumulating background material, expanding the S. hermonthica IPM training into other communities (as necessary), implementing training recommendations, acquiring and disseminating improved seed for production and propagation, monitoring yields, and providing continuing guidance with respect to technical concerns." *> C. Berube, 890 Eberts St., Nanaimo, BC V9S 1P6, CANADA. Phone: 1-250-754-1155. uc779@freenet.victoria.bc.ca. thanks to C. Berube for information. PUBLICATIONS PERUSED

THE ECOLOGY OF WEEDS A 2003 textbook focuses on the link between ecological principles and the invasion of unwanted plants (weeds), basically describing why and where weeds occur. WEED ECOLOGY IN NATURAL AND AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS, note authors B.D. Booth, et al, makes no attempt to discuss weed management, but emphasizes how and why weeds neatly fit into their environment. The softbound, 311-page monograph dwells on concepts and presents a refreshing view that has appeal to a broad audience beyond the realm of weed science. "In the long term," the authors point out, understanding the fundamentals of weed distribution and abundance "may change our attitudes and perceptions towards weeds and alter the way we manage them." *> CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. cabi@cabi.org. Fax: 44-0-1491-833508. Phone: 44-0-1491-832111. Web: www.cabi WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES

IPM FIELD SCHOOL REPORTS STUDIED The concept that farmers, particularly in developing nations, most effectively absorb information through field observation and experimentation gave rise to the farmer field school (FFS) approach for introducing IPM programs. In turn, documentation of FFS activities has been prolific, but broadly varying in format and content. Often the aspect of results, or impacts, of FFS efforts has been somewhat sketchy. To address this situation, the FAO Global IPM Facility commissioned a study by H. van den Berg resulting in a comprehensive, 53-page report, "IPM Farmer Field Schools: A Synthesis of 25 Impact Evaluations," that reviews the available impact studies. Dr. van den Berg found, not surprisingly, that FFS impact evaluation is a highly complex exercise "because of methodological obstacles." Most of the studies, van den Berg notes, measured immediate impacts, such as reduced use of pesticides. But statistical rigor and parameters varied leading the author to propose several recommendations for future FFS studies. Chief among these are a need to improve study design, increase scope and rigor of results, and emphasize development impacts. The report was published recently on the Global IPM Facility website in 2004 at www.fao.org and can be freely downloaded in either PDF or HTML versions.*> H. van den Berg, VandenBerg100@wanadoo.nl. thanks to H. van den Berg for information.

PROGRAM ISSUES IPM REPORTS The U.S. government funded IPM Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM-CRSP) has published two recent additions to the IPM CRSProgress Report series. Report no. 6 describes the program's involvement in helping farmers in MALI produce organic, pesticide-free Phaseolus vulgaris (green beans) for export. The package of practices recommended includes planting pest-resistant varieties that are also high quality and high yielding; using well decomposed compost for soil fertility; employing soil solarization to control plant diseases; using sticky traps and neem extracts to control pest insects; and manually removing weeds. Report no. 7, published in June 2004, focuses on IPM strategies for organic olive production in ALBANIA. Use of straw mulch was found to suppress weeds; pest insects were managed by use of traps plus adjustment of harvest timing. Both documents include color photos. *> IPM-CRSP, 1060 Litton Reaves Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. IPM-dir@vt.edu. Fax: 1-540-231-3519. Phone: 1-540-231-3513. Web: www.ag.vt.edu

SUPPLEMENTAL PEST INFORMATION Specialists at the Ontario (CANADA) Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry issue a biannual province-wide FIELD CROP PROTECTION GUIDE as the definitive source for regional information and comment on insect and disease control products for major field crops. The GUIDE also includes best control options for integrated pest management for each insect and disease. The latest GUIDE was published in 2003, and so to cover changes in 2004 on items such as new or discontinued products, new registrations, and new pests, a supplement has been issued, but with an interesting twist. All data in the supplement appear in red, thus making it easier for users to identify new information (additions, changes, corrections, etc.). Copies of the 2003 edition (pub. #812) are available from an OMAF Resource Centre, or by calling 1-888-466-2372. The GUIDE also can be found on the OMAF/OMAFRA web at www.gov.on.ca The 2004 supplement can be requested from the same sources or viewed at www.gov.on.ca thanks to T. Baute for providing information.

PESTICIDE RESISTANCE The latest issue of the free, biannual RESISTANT PEST MANAGEMENT NEWSLETTER, vol. 13, no. 2 (Spring 2004), is now available both in an online version at whalonlab.msu.edu or as a printable PDF version at (two-line URL): whalonlab.msu.edu The RPM newsletter exists to "provide an accurate, informative , and useful resource" that informs a worldwide community of advances and shifts in the field of pest resistance management. *> A.C. Beebe, Newsletter Coordinator, rpmnews@msu.edu.

CONCERN PROMPTS WEED WEBSITE When does a single herbaceous weed species rate its own website? When it is Parthenium hysterophorus, a highly noxious plant containing toxins capable of causing adverse physical effects in humans and animals, and rated as one of the "world's 10 worst weeds." In view of the plant's nasty character and rapid spread it is now found in tropical and subtropical regions of several continents a group of concerned scientists formed the International Parthenium Research News Group (IPRNG) and established a website www.iprng.org as an information site covering most elements related to P. hysterophorus. The IPRNG web contains sections devoted to research, news, published articles, best management practices, and references, plus a directory of involved researchers. In addition to IPRNG, several other groups have formed such as the Parthenium Action Group, and the Society for Parthenium Management. *> P. Oudhia, 28-A, Geeta Nagar, Raipur 492001, INDIA. Pankaj.Oudhia@usa.net. Fax: 91-771-242-4532. Phone: 91-771-225-3243.

thanks to P. Oudhia for information. PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

WEED BIOCONTROL SCIENTIST, Champaign, IL, USA * Plan, develop, and conduct research focused on biological control of weeds of natural areas (forests, wetlands, prairies), roadsides, and agricultural habitats. * REQUIRES: Ph.D. in entomology, weed science, or related field; preference given candidates with post-doctoral training or experience in biological control using arthropod biocontrol agents; experience with theory and methodology of biological control, weed ecology, and an understanding of host-range testing; insect and/or plant identification experience desired; record of frequent publication in peer-reviewed, nationally recognized scientific journals; demonstrated ability to plan, attract funding for, conduct, supervise, and evaluate research activities; ability to engage in cooperative research. * CONTACT: Human Resources Office, PRF #1276, Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E. Peabody Dr., Champaign, IL 61820, USA. hroffice@inhs.uiuc.edu. Fax: 1-217-333-4949. Phone 1-217-265-5644. Materials must be submitted by 14 July 2004. Direct technical questions to: R.N. Wiedenmann, Phone: 1-217-333-6656. RNWieden@uiuc.edu. Web: www.inhs.uiuc.edu EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

BAGS OF PEST CONFUSION A U.S. firm produces and markets a range of metered semiochemical timed release systems (MSTRS) that cause mating disruption of four key pest insects: Rhopobota naevana (blackheaded fireworm); Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer); Sparganothis sulfureana (Sparganothis fruitworm); and Grapholita molesta (Oriental fruit moth). The lures are packaged as controlled release membrane "baggies" that can be positioned in fields in varying frequency as needed to significantly reduce mating by females of the targeted species. The products, which have gained approval of both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Organic Materials Review Institute, are said to provide "non-toxic, environmentally sound, efficient, and cost effective insect control." Another more recently introduced product is a "Ladybeetle-Lacewing Magnet" designed to attract Coleomegilla maculata (twelve-spotted ladybeetle) and Chrysopa oculata (golden-eyed lacewings) for predation of various pest insect species. *> MSTRS Technologies, Inc., ISU Research Park, 2501 North Loop Dr., Ames, IA 50010-8277, USA. Fax: 1-515-296-9924. TCBaker@mstrs.com. Phone: 1-515-296-6332. Web: www.mstrs.com thanks to J. Meneley for information.
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

FEATURED PAPER

APPLICATION DETAILS ARE IMPORTANT Far too often scientific papers discussing use or application of pesticides fail to include adequate detailed information argues G.A. Matthews, one of the world's leading authorities on the topic. In essence, Prof. Matthews says frequently details for liquid pesticide application type of equipment used, operating pressure, nozzle type, spray angle, and other factors are erroneously omitted. In his short article, "How was the Pesticide Applied?" (CROP PROT., 23(7), 651-653, July 2004) Matthews discusses some of the key factors that bear on (and should be considered) when assessing the efficacy of pesticide use, or recommending a specific product. Aspiring authors take note. *> G.A. Matthews, IPARC, Silwood Pk., Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, UK. G.Matthews@imperial.ac.uk. Fax: 44-207-594-2450. Phone: 44-207-594-2234. excerpted with thanks from CROP PROT. THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

General "Biological Control Not on Target," Stiling, P. * BIOL. INVASIONS, 6(2), 151-159, 2004. Phytopathology

"Biological Treatments to Control Bacterial Canker of Greenhouse Tomatoes," Utkhede, R., and C. Koch. * BIOCONT., 49(3), 305-313, June 2004.

"Sterility Mosaic Diseasethe "Green Plague" of Pigeonpea: Advances in Understanding the Etiology, Transmission and Control of a Major Virus Disease," Jones, A.T., et al. * PLANT DIS., 88(5), 436-445, May 2004. Weed Science

"Fertilizer Nitrogen Rate and the Response of Weeds to Herbicides," Cathcart, R.J., et al. * WEED SCI., 52(2), 291-296, March 2004. "Weed Management in Glyphosate Resistant Soybean: Weed Emergence Patterns in Relation to Glyphosate Treatment Timing," Hilgenfeld, K.L., et al. * WEED TECH., 18(2), 277-283, April 2004. Entomology

"A Geometric Model of Mortality and Crop Protection for Insects Feeding on Discrete Toxicant Deposits," Ebert, T., and R. Derksen. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 97(2), 155-162, April 2004. "A Handheld Decision Support System to Facilitate Improved Insect Pest Management in Australian Cotton Systems," Bange, M.P., et al. * COMPUTERS AND ELECT. IN AGRIC., 43(2), 131-147, May 2004. "Management of Insect Pests of Soybean: Effects of Sowing date and Intercropping on Damage and Grain Yield in the Nigerian Sudan Savanna," Sastawa, B.M., et al. * CROP PROT., 23(2), 155-161, February 2004. Bt sub-Section "Influence of Pesticide Applications on Pest and Predatory Arthropods Associated with Transgenic Bt Cotton and Nontransgenic Cotton Plants," Men, X., et al. * PHYTOPARA., 32(3), 246-254, 2004. Nematology "Factors Limiting Short-term Persistence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes," Wilson, M. and R. Gaugler. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ENTOM., 128(4), 250-253, May 2004.
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U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments

Pest Prediction Maps Produced

Pest management specialists in the Northeastern U.S. have begun to coordinate their efforts to develop prediction maps for key pest insect species, thereby enabling regional growers to deploy more accurate and timely pest management action.

According to D. Calvin, project director, the maps help growers anticipate an insect pest's emergence, and then time scouting and pest management techniques accordingly. "Without good timing methods," notes Dr. Calvin, "pest management techniques may be rendered inadequate, reducing profits to growers. Providing better technologies to time key pest emergence is valuable to all farmers, regardless of their current production practices."

The insect prediction maps for crops such as corn and alfalfa are freely available to all interested parties on the Web at www.ento.psu.edu 2003 growing season was the first full season the system was in place. During the 2004 growing season, verification data will be collected to ensure that the maps are adequately tracking pest development. "We'll also be conducting field days at various locations with farmers, consultants, and agricultural professionals to demonstrate the use of the maps and discuss the value of pest prediction," Calvin advised. *> D. Calvin, Dept. of Entomology, 509 Ag. Sci. Bldg., Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA 16802, USA. DCalvin@psu.edu. Phone: 1-814-863-4640. excerpted with thanks from Environmental News Network.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)


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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2004 (N) 20-21 September * BIOTECH BUGS, "A Look at the Science and Public Policy Surrounding the Release of Genetically Modified Insects," Washington, DC, USA. Contact: Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, 1331 H St., Suite 900, Washington, DC 20005, USA. inquiries@pewagbiotech.org. Fax: 1-202-347-0047. Phone: 1-202-347-9044. Web: pewagbiotech.org 20 September-01 October * TRAINING WORKSHOP ON THE DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION OF MULTIMEDIA DIAGNOSTIC KEYS FOR PLANT PESTS IN THE ASEAN REGION, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA. Contact: S. Soetikno, S.Soetikno@cabi.org.

(N) 26 October * MAKING PESTICIDES EASIER AND MORE EFFECTIVE TO USE, London, UK. Contact: SCI, 14/15 Belgrave Sq., London SW1X 8PS, UK. Jacqui.Maguire@soci.org. Fax: 44-0-20-7235-7743. Phone: 44-0-20-7598-1562. Web: www.soci.org 27-29 October * INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PESTICIDE APPLICATION FOR DRIFT MANAGEMENT, Waikoloa, HI, USA. Contact: C. Ramsay, PO Box 646382, Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA 99164-6382, USA. Ramsay@wsu.edu. Fax: 1-509-335-1009. Phone: 1-509-335-9222. Web: pep.wsu.edu 04-08 April * EPIDEMIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, Lima, PERU. Contact: P. Anderson, P.Anderson@cgiar.org.

(N) 11-15 April * WORKING GROUPS ON LEGUME AND VEGETABLE VIRUSES, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA. Contact: G.C. Wisler, Dept. of Plant Pathology, Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110680, Gainesville, FL 32611-0680, USA. Fax: 1-352-392-6532. GCWisler@ifas.ufl.edu.

(N) 09-13 May * 2ND FAO/IAEA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AREA-WIDE CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS, "Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques," Vienna, AUSTRIA. Contact: A. Bakri, Insect Pest Cont. Sect., FAO/IAEA Div., Rm. A-2220, IAEA, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400 Vienna, AUSTRIA. A.Bakri@iaea.org. Fax: 43-1-2600-7 Phone: 43-1-2600-26055. Web: www 09-11 June * PLANT PROTECTION AND PLANT HEALTH IN EUROPE * INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF INVASIVE SPECIES, Berlin, GERMANY. Contact: Symposium Chair, DPG, Messeweg 11/12, D-38104 Braunschweig, GERMANY. DPG-BCPC@dpg.phytomedizin.org. Web: www.phytomedizin.org 04-06 April * 5TH U.S. NATIONAL IPM SYMPOSIUM, "Delivering on a Promise," St. Louis, MO, USA. Contact: E. Wolff, OCE, Univ. of Illinois, 302 E. John St., Suite 202, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Fax: 1-217-333-9561. Phone: 1-217-333-2880. Web: www.ipmcenters.org (N) ew or [R]evised event listings reported for these years.
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