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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


October 2004, Issue no. 130
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

California Limits Hand Weeding

In a first-of-its-kind move, regulators in the U.S. state of California recently approved a temporary ban on the physically demanding practices of hand weeding, hand thinning, or similar hand operations in most commercial crops, operations that were deemed to place workers at "substantial risk of back injuries."

The state's Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board issued an official finding "of emergency" to "prevent back injuries and related injuries to employees by prohibiting unnecessary" hand operations. A farm workers representative was quoted as calling the Board's action "a modest step to ban a practice that should never have existed in the first place."

Establishment of the temporary rule, with a permanent rule anticipated within the next year, resulted from nearly a decade of contentious dialog between growers, especially of organic crops, and farm workers. In 1975 California banned use of short-handle implements that required users to bend or stoop for long periods while weeding. Two previous legislative initiatives to ban hand weeding and thinning failed because affected parties could not agree on the proposed terms and language.

Based on input from an advisory committee of grower and labor representatives, as well as medical advice, the Board issued a 10-page finding (www.dir.ca.gov that, while aimed at protecting worker health, incorporates numerous exemptions and special conditions. Organic operations are exempt, as are high density plantings and seedling crops, and crops grown in tubs or planters where a long handled tool is unsuitable. Hand operations are permitted if growers can justify that other means of weeding are unsuitable. Occasional or intermittent hand operations are permitted if performed by workers no more than 20 percent of the time during any one week period.

Additionally, workers engaged in hand operations now must be given training in methods to prevent injury, and must be provided with gloves and knee pads, as necessary, along with being allowed additional periods of paid rest time during hand operations.*> oshsb@dir.ca.gov .

excerpted with thanks from the Board's website, and from reports by the Associated Press and Reuters.

New EPPO Pest Database Released

The European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) has released an updated version of its Plant Quarantine Database (PQR) containing geographical distribution and host plants of pests listed by EPPO and the European Union. It also contains data distilled from a variety of sources on many other quarantine pests of interest to other regions of the world.

In addition to general nomenclature and taxonomic details, the latest PQR (version 4.3) offers data on geographical distribution for each pest as well as lists of host plants and commodities able to act as pathways in international trade. The same information, approached from a different direction, can generate lists of quarantine pests attacking hosts, carried by commodities, occurring in countries, or of concern to specific regions or countries.

PQR also includes information about regional and national plant protection organizations, and is used by other institutions as a resource for creating materials such as distribution maps of pest insects and pathogens.

EPPO's website ( www.eppo.org ) describes the PQR and provides examples of search options that can be conducted. Another portion of the EPPO web discusses various aspects of the organization's efficacy evaluation program for a wide range of pest management products. *> EPPO Secretariat, 1 rue Le Notre,75016 Paris, FRANCE. hq@eppo.fr . Fax: 33-1-4224-8943. Phone: 33-1-4520-7794. GLOBAL IPM "SNAPSHOTS"

Scientists have synthesized an enzyme capable of acetylating glyphosate, thus conferring plant tolerance to glyphosate-based herbicides. *> L.A. Castle, Linda.Castle@verdiainc.com.

The FAO Emergency Centre for Locust Operations (ECLO) predicts a substantial number of swarms will invade both Northwest and West Africa in spring 2005. *> eclo@fao.org.

Dense Mimosa pigra (giant mimosa) stands were effectively controlled by integrating fire, biocontrol, herbicides, and crushing. *> Q. Paynter, PaynterQ@LandacareResearch.co.nz.

A U.S. wheat breeder has announced a new wheat line with a high degree of resistance to Fusarium graminearum fungus (Fusarium head blight, or head scab). *> H. Ohm, HOhm@purdue.edu.

Resistant cultivars planted early in the season proved a useful integrated approach to managing Orobanche crenata Forsk (crenate broomrape). *> D. Rubiales, ge2ruozd@uco.es .
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

How Do You Say IPM?

An established project chronicling the history of IPM aims to document the origins, evolution, and diffusion of the IPM concept throughout the world.

Project leader and long time IPM research scientist M. Kogan noted that, "To faithfully reflect the contributions of all countries to IPM we are greatly interested to learn how the expression 'integrated pest management' is stated in as many languages as possible, as well as other international IPM information."

The project would appreciate receiving information regarding IPM programs, both current and past, in your country (or region), as well as the institutions that host these programs. Alternatively, please advise the project of who to contact in your country to acquire IPM information.

Dr. Kogan said that all responses and help will not only be greatly appreciated and valuable, but also duly acknowledged in the final publication summarizing the project.

IPM information sought by the project includes:

Your country and official language: How is the expression 'Integrated Pest Management' translated into your language? [Please provide original expression in your language, written in your original alphabet, if different from the Roman alphabet, with transliteration into the Roman alphabet, and literal translation into English:]

a. The expression "Integrated Pest Management" in your primary national or regional language: b. Transliteration of the expression: c. Literal translation of the expression into English: Names and possible sources of biographical notes on IPM pioneers in your country: Please list landmark IPM programs in your country: Please list leading IPM research, teaching, and extension institutions in your country: . Who you are: Name- Title- Institution- Your e-mail address- Please e-mail responses to: KoganM@science.oregonstate.edu . Organic Crops and Diseases

"The New Agriculture Network" (NAN) on-line newsletter, a periodic cooperative effort between a grower group and three U.S. universities with funding from the American Farmland Trust and area 5 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, carries seasonal advice for field crop and vegetable growers interested in organic agriculture. In a recent issue (vol. 1, no. 10, August 26, 2004) on the web at: www.ipm.msu.edu two plant pathologists discuss important aspects of organic crop disease management.

D.S. Egel specifically focuses on vegetable disease management noting that, "the best disease management is always proactive," especially in organic systems where fewer options are available. Dr. Egel (eml: Egel@purdue.edu ) presents "A Summary of Cultural Management Strategies for Disease," a concise table built around the triumvirate of tillage, use of resistant varieties, and crop rotation as applied to numerous important vegetable crops. The accompanying text discusses management options in more detail.

A companion article addresses "What to Expect for Late Season Diseases," wherein D.M. Eastburn (eml: Eastburn@uiuc.edu ) covers aspects of disease build-up, carryover, and spread. He notes that late season disease emergence is particularly frustrating as conditions often preclude taking any effective action. In general, Dr. Eastburn advocates thorough record keeping, preparation and implementation of disease management strategies at or before planting, and developing knowledge regarding the strong likelihood of late season disease occurrence.

NAN's content, though directed at three midwestern U.S. states, can be of wider geographic application, as shown by the two disease related items cited above. Free electronic subscriptions to NAN are available by e-mailing the message: subscribe organic_ag_news, to: majordomo@listserv.msue.msu.edu . PUBLICATIONS PERUSED

ARABLE LAND AND WEEDS A 288-page monograph published in 2003 discusses "the appearance and management of plants with different traits occurring as weeds on arable land" from a Swedish perspective, but with a global outlook. Weed scientist S. Hakansson has distilled his decades of experience into the pages of WEED AND WEED MANAGEMENT ON ARABLE LANDAN ECOLOGICAL APPROACH, and, as the title suggests, flavored the text with a broad biological and ecological view of weed management. A useful Guide to the 13 chapters in the text sets the stage for a logical presentation, right from the basic concept of "weediness" and plant competition through to "issues requiring knowledge for the guidance of rational integrated weed management." The hardbound work covers both intended and unintended effects of weed management and quietly suggests that actions be based on "broad biological and ecological knowledge and considerations." The author aims for, and notably succeeds in offering, a balanced view of weed management rationale and procedures within a on text of ecological sensitivity. *> CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. cabi@cabi.org . Fax: 44-0-1491-833508. Phone: 44-0-1491-832111.Web: www.cabi .

PROFILING CROP GENETIC MODIFICATION |The debate over genetically modified crops and the broader concept of agricultural biotechnology shows no sign of slowing down, but to the contrary has amplified as potential or experienced benefits and drawbacks become a reality. Into this arena step editors G.H. Liang and D.Z. Skinner who have marshalled the contributions of 35 international specialists to produce GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPSTHEIR DEVELOPMENT, USES, AND RISKS, a 2004 treatise on a red hot subject. The volume addresses gene delivery, laboratory tools and techniques to increase success rates, and other key topics such as the benefits, risks, and limitations of current procedures. The 410-page, softbound (hardbound also available) monograph uses 14 chapters to discuss genetic modification of several globally important food and fiber crops as well as outcome scenarios, both positive and negative, of introduction into the environment. *> Food Product Press/Haworth, 10 Alice St., Binghampton, NY 13904-1580, USA. orders@haworthpress.com . Fax: 1-607-771-0012. Phone: 1-607-722-5857. Web: www.haworthpress.com .

LEAST TOXIC PRODUCTS Compiled by IPM technical experts, the 2004 DIRECTORY OF LEAST TOXIC PEST CONTROL PRODUCTS stands as a unique resource for accessing more than 2,000 pest control items from approximately 500 producers and suppliers worldwide. The bulk of the 52-page work covers insects, arranged by common groupings, with less space devoted to pathogens, vertebrates, and lastly, weeds. The softbound Directory, published as vol. XXV, no. 11/12, of the IPM PRACTITIONER in November/December 2003 and combining the fall 2003 edition of COMMON SENSE PEST CONTROL QUARTERLY, includes a useful index. The producer/supplier listing, while extensive, does not provide e-mail addresses, today's most used channel for communications in the majority of instances. *> Bio-Integral Resource Center, PO Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707, USA. Fax: 1-510-524-1758. Phone: 1-510-524-2567.BIRC@igc.org . WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES

INVASIVE PLANTS LISTED World Wildlife Fund (WWF) Australia has prepared a comprehensive NATIONAL LIST OF NATURALISED INVASIVE AND POTENTIALLY INVASIVE GARDEN PLANTS for Australia listing well over 1,000 species. The free, 40-page PDF file lists common names, naturalization site(s), national importance, and other features for each plant, including its availability for sale (many are widely available). The list is attractively laid out and user friendly.*> A. Glanznig, WWF Australia, GPO Box 528, Sydney, NSW 2001, AUSTRALIA. AGlanzig@wwf.org.au .Fax: 61-02-9281-1060. Phone: 61-02-8202-1228. PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

SENIOR RESEARCH SCIENTIST,

New Brunswick, NJ, USA. * Manage crop protection chemicals and biopesticides research and registration for ornamental horticulture crop (OHC) industry (cut flowers, field and container grown nursery plants, potted flowering foliage plants, field flowers, seed crops, Christmas trees); collaborate with growers, organizations, crop protection industry, land grant and state universities, USDA researchers, and cooperative extension personnel to identify and prioritize solutions to pest management problems on OHCs; provide leadership for development of registration support data; facilitate registration with the crop protection industry and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by drafting and/or providing appropriate data packages to ensure timely approval. * Requires: MS in plant science, pest management, or related discipline (PhD strongly preferred); minimum of 15 years crop pest management experience (including 5 years working with OHCs) within U.S. land grant university system, research or extension system, or crop protection industry; experience conducting and/or managing research, submitting data to regulatory agencies and/or managing pest management products used in growing OHCs; ability to work as part of a team and collaborate with researchers, representatives from crop protection companies, growers, and commodity organizations; exceptional written and verbal communication skill; strong background in using computers. Contact: J. Baron, IR-4 Program, 681 U.S. Highway #1 South, North Brunswick, NJ 08902-3390, USA. JBaron@aesop.rutgers.edu . Fax: 732-932-8481. thanks to D.D. Kopp for information. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

PRODUCT TO REPLACE METHYL BROMIDE The race to find a replacement for the ozone-depleting fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) may have a front runner with the announcement that a new environmentally safe product for treating soil, weeds, insect pests, and pathogens, will now enter the commercialization phase, according to CSIRO (the Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organization in Australia).

Discovered a decade ago by CSIRO scientists, ethanedinitrile (EDN) is said to be even more effective than MeBr for treating soil, timber, and imported feed for livestock, based on extensive field test results.

An agreement reached between CSIRO and a global industrial gas companythe BOC Groupsignals commercialization of EDN production. CSIRO will assist BOC to develop efficacy data for the fumigant with BOC registering the product and identifying suitable manufacturers.

Globally the current MeBr market is estimated to be worth more than A0 million annually. Phase out of MeBr is scheduled for 2006 leading to an urgent need for identifying, testing, and developing functional alternatives. excerpted with thanks from a CSIRO news release.
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

General "Can Biological Control Benefit from Genetically-modified Crops? Tritrophic Interactions on Insect-resistant Transgenic Plants," Poppy, G.M., and J.P. Sutherland. * PHYSIO. ENTOMOL., 29(3), 257-268, August 2004. "Regulating Transgenic Crops: A Comparative Analysis of Different Regulatory Processes," Jaffe, G. * TRANSGEN. RESCH., 13(1), 5-19, February 2004. Phytopathology

"Germination and Survival of Fusarium graminearum Macroconidia as Affected by Environmental Factors," Beyer, M., et al. * JRNL. OF PHYTOPATH., 152(2), 92-97, February 2004. "Transgenic Potatoes Expressing a Novel Cationic Peptide are Resistant to Late Blight and Pink Rot," Osusky, M., et al. * TRANSGEN. RESCH., 13(2), 181-190, April 2004. Weed Science

"Modelling Integrated Weed Management of an Invasive Shrub in Tropical Australia," Buckley, Y.M., et al. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ECOL., 41(3), 547-560, June 2004. "Remote Sensing to Detect Herbicide Drift on Crops," Henry, W.B., et al. * WEED TECH., 18(2), 358-368, April 2004. Entomology

"Economic Evaluation of the Integrated Management of the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango in India," Verghese, A., et al. * CROP PROT., 23(1), 61-63, January 2004. "Lessons from History: Predicting Successes and Risks of Intentional Introductions for Arthropod Biological Control," Kimberling, D.N. * BIOL. INVASIONS, 6(3), 301-318, 2004. Vertebrate Management

"Obstructive Non-woven Fiber Barriers for Reducing Red-winged Blackbird Damage to Sweet Corn," Curtis, P.D., et al. * CROP PROT., 23(9), 819-823, September 2004.
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U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments

Newsy Letters

Newsletters nowadays heavily electronic as opposed to printed form a key channel for relaying and dispersing information. Many groups active in the IPM firmament have launched a newsletter at one time or another, though attrition has been high. The four regional IPM centers (RIPMCs) are active in the newsletter arena with the Northeast Center initially emerging at the forefront with a professionally designed and applied layout that may become a standard for other centers (see, www.nepmc.org ).

Perhaps more broadly interesting than Center publications, state level IPM newsletters delve into IPM specifics and aim for an audience that seeks actual pest management information (tactics, strategies, etc.) and who doesn't give a wild-eyed whoop about alphabet soup grant deadlines. A case in point is IPM MARYLAND, a lively newsletter found at www.agnr.umd.edu , and while linked to the Northeast RIPMC, sports its own very unique features.

The State of Maryland's IPM communication opens with a menu of IPM-related topics, several being links to other websites including institutional administrivia. More interesting is the invitation to visit the "Home and Garden Information Center" and in a single mouse click gain access to a raft of timely tips, current topics (sudden oak death syndrome) and invasive species information, as well as other area-specific material. Layout is uncomplicated and user friendly throughout.

Early efforts from some of the centers have matured into informative and graphically appealing publications. Cross linking and attention to including a wide array of material generally rewards viewers with useful knowledge and contacts.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)


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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2004 (N) 8-12 November * WORKSHOP: USE OF THE ELECTRICAL PENETRATION GRAPHS TECHNIQUE IN THE STUDY OF INSECT-PLANT INTERACTION, Lavras, Minas Gerais, BRAZIL. Contact: J.C. Moraes, JCMoraes@ufla.br .

(N) 18-19 November * 2ND NEW ZEALAND BIOSECURITY SUMMIT, Auckland, NEW ZEALAND. Contact: N. Hall, Business Svc., Biosecurity Authority, MAF, PO Box 2526, Wellington, NEW ZEALAND. Fax: 64-04-498-9888. Nadine.Hall@maf.govt.nz . Phone: 64-04-498-9865. Web: www.maf.govt.nz .

(N) 18-19 November * CONFERENCE 2004, INTEGRATED VEGETATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION OF B.C., "Vegetation Management: The Triple Bottom LineThe Social, Environmental & Economic Impacts of Herbicide Use," Richmond, BC, CANADA. Contact: IVMA of BC, Suite 720, 999 West Broadway, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1K5, CANADA. Web: www.ivma.com .

(N) 02-03 December * AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL ECOTOXICOLOGY AND RISK MANAGEMENT, Dortmund, GERMANY. Contact: S. Mummenbrauer, Die Akademie Fresenius, Alter Hellweg 46, 44379 Dortmund, GERMANY. info@akademie-fresenius.de . Phone: 49-0-231-758-9681. Fax: 49-0-231-758-9653. Web: www.akademie (click on "plant protection products").

2005

(N) 01-03 February * 3RD SYMPOSIUM ON HEMLOCK WOOLLY ADELGID IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES, Asheville, NC, USA. Contact: F. Hain, Dept. of Entomology, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7626, Grinnells Labs, Raleigh, NC 27695-7626, USA. Fred_Hain@ncsu.edu . Fax: 1-919-515-7273. Phone: 1-919-515-3804.

(N) 10-14 April * 2ND JOINT CONFERENCE, INTERNATIONAL WORKING GROUPS ON LEGUME AND VEGETABLE VIRUSES, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA. Contact: G.C. Wisler, Dept. of Plant Path., Univ. of Florida, PO Box 110680, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Fax: 1-352-392-6532. GCWisler@ifas.ufl.edu . Phone: 1-352-392-3631, ext 210. Web: conference.ifas.ufl.edu

(N) 02-06 May * 13TH AUSTRALASIAN VERTEBRATE PEST CONFERENCE, Wellington, NEW ZEALAND. Web: www.landcareresearch.co.nz .

(N) 09-13 May * 2ND FAO/IAEA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AREA-WIDE CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS, "Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques," Vienna, AUSTRIA. Contact: J. Hendrichs, FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Tech. in Food and Agric., IAEA, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, AUSTRIA. J.Hendrichs@iaea.org . Fax: 43-1-2600-7. Phone: 43-1-2600-21628. Web: www .

(N) 09-11 June * PLANT PROTECTION AND PLANT HEALTH IN EUROPE: INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF INVASIVE SPECIES, Berlin, GERMANY. Contact: DPG, Messeweg 11/12m, D-38104 Braunschweig, GERMANY. dpg@bba.de , Web: www.phytomedizin.org .

(N) 04-06 October * EASTERN CANADA VEGETATION MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATIONS' WORKSHOP, "Space Invaders * Future Outlook for Vegetation Management," Kingston, ON, CANADA. Contact: R. Campbell, NRC, GLFC, 1219 Queen St. East, Sault Ste Marie, ON P6A 2E5, CANADA. BCampbel@nrcan.gc.ca . Web: www.ecvma.org. 30 October-03 November * 6TH PACIFIC RIM CONFERENCE ON THE BIOTECHNOLOGY OF Bacillus thuringiensis AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, Victoria, BC, CANADA. Contact: L. Levesque, Biocontrol Network, Dept. de Physiologie, Rm. 3156 P.G. Desmarais Bldg., Univ. de Montreal, 2960, Chemin de la Tour, Montreal, QUE H3T 1J4, CANADA. biocontrol-network@umontreal.ca . Fax: 1-514-343-6631. Phone: 1-514-343-7950.

2006

(N) 30 January-02 February * BIODIVERISTY OF INSECTS: CHALLENGING ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION, Coimbatore, INDIA. Contact: K. Murugan, Dept. of Zoology, Bharathiar Univ., Coimbatore-641 046, INDIA. Phone: 91-422-2422-222. Fax: 91-422-2425-706. kmvvk@yahoo.com . Web: www.b (N) ew or [R]evised event listings reported for this year.

2008

(N) Date unknown * 5TH INTERNATIONAL WEED SCIENCE CONGRESS, Vancouver, BC, CANADA.

2009

No (N) ew or [R]evised event listings reported for this year.
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