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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


May 2005, Issue no. 137
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Pesticidal Runoff Answer Proposed

A team-developed, area wide IPM program aimed at reducing both a complex of fruit flies and the intensive application of organophosphate insecticides, has been adopted during a half-decade of operation and successful implementation by over 300 large and small farms across the islands in the U.S. State of Hawaii.

The result has been a striking 95 percent reduction of fruit fly infestation with a concurrent 75-90 percent decrease in "hard" insecticide use, according to a recent U.S. Agric. Research Service news release.

The Hawaii Area wide Fruit Fly Integrated Pest Management Program, (HAW-FLYPM,) www.fruitfly.hawaii.edu combines population monitoring with a series of suppression tactics including: field sanitation; male fly annihilation; environmentally safer protein bait/toxicant sprays; and biocontrol through release of sterile, male-only flies.

In 2004, HAW-FLYPM received several honors and prestigious awards for achievement and successful team effort involving academe and industry. With the program successfully established, its long-term management is now shifting from researchers to the growers themselves. excerpted, with thanks, from an ARS news release and from the HAW-FLYPM website. Fruit Fly IPM Program Earns Kudos

The problem of pesticide runoff affecting the domestic water supply of at least 20 million California residents can be substantially abated, if not solved, according to a recent report: encourage growers to reduce pesticide use through a mechanism of financial rewards and voluntary programs that avoid stringent regulations.

The approach, says economist/engineer G.H. Wolff of the Pacific Institute, author of the report "Investing in Clean Agriculture: How California can Strengthen Agriculture, Reduce Pollution and Save Money," pacinst.org has yielded results in other countries. The proposed scheme is said to not only benefit the greater public, but reward growers as well.

Specifically, Dr. Wolff proposes that the state raise its current tax on pesticides from 2.1 percent of wholesale value to 10 percent for just three years. Funds generated by the temporary increase would be used to support voluntary educational programs for growers as how to reduce the volume of, or eliminate, pesticidal runoff. Growers who chose to enroll in the program could receive rebates that would more than compensate for the 7.9 percent tax increase they paid.

"Business as usual isn't working for our state," Wolff said. "Our plan will reduce pesticide use, protect public health, preserve the environment, and help California's farmers stay competitive in a rapidly changing economy. We think this will be a win for consumers, a win for taxpayers, and a win for agriculture," he asserted.

*> G.H. Wolf, Pacific Institute, 654 13th St., Preservation Park, Oakland, CA 94612, USA. pistaff@pacinst.org 1.Fax: 1-510-251-2203. Phone: 1-510-251-1600. thanks to A. Rother for information. GLOBAL IPM SNAPSHOTS

Soybeans planted in widely spaced rows were found to require earlier weed management than those planted in narrower row spacing. *-> S.Z. Knezevic, SKnezevic2@unl.edu. @ Trials over several years proved that growing wheat resistant to Mycosphaerella graminicola was the optimum management strategy in Ireland. *-> P.C. Mercer, Peter.Mercer@dardni.gov.uk. @ Inoculating container plant roots with Metarhizium anisopliae delivered entomopathogenic fungi and reduced application costs compared to other methods. *-> D.J. Bruck, Bruck@onid.orst.edu. @ Greenhouse studies showed that neem (seed extract) controlled two important pest insects of coffee in Brazil, but was not lethal to a predatory mite. *-> M. Venzon, Venzon@epamig.ufv.br.
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

PUBLICATIONS PERUSED

IPM IN THE GLOBAL CONTEXT

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has nurtured a portfolio of collaborative research support programs (CRSPs) to stimulate cooperate research on a range of topics in developing regions. Initiated in 1993, the IPM CRSP was "conceptualized by USAID to address health, environment, and economic issues globally through IPM interventions," notes S.K. De Datta, principal investigator of the IPM CRSP, in his forward to the 2005 publication, GLOBALIZING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT, A PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH PROCESS, which chronicles more than a decade of activity by the IPM CRSP. Editors G.W. Norton, et al, plus a phalanx of international contributing authors, lay out the need to globalize IPM and the importance of employing a participatory process, and then describe a number of strategic "IPM packages" that have resulted in Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and eastern Europe. The 362-page work includes 16 color and many other black/white photos and figures. Said to be unique among IPM books, the hard-bound volume "stresses policy analysis, social and economic impact assessment, multidisciplinary field research, and technology transfer," accord to the publisher. Dr. De Datta believes that the publication "should serve as an important resource for all IPM practitioners as well as for domestic and international development agencies." *> Blackwell Publishing, 2121 State Ave., Ames, IA 50014-8300, USA. Fax: 1-515-292-3348. Ashley.Mullen@blackwellprofessional.com. Web: store.blackwell .

EQUATING IPM WITH DETOX

J. Pretty, professor of environment and society in the UK, has edited contributions from a notable list of international authors all arguing the merits of sharp global pesticide reduction, if not total elimination. The resulting 2005 publication, THE PESTICIDE DETOX, "describes the problems associated with pesticide use and highlights a range of initiatives that provide viable alternatives, with special attention given to integrated pest management (IPM)," Prof. Pretty observes in the softbound volume's preface. In fact, IPM pops up repeatedly throughout this 318-page monograph, from definition to application, but viewed through lenses of authors with varying slants and personal viewpoints on the "if, when, and how" elements. Much of the ground covered has been well trod-over and some of the terminology iresome ("hazardous pesticides;" what about water, also hazardous in certain quantities; whatever happened to the "dose makes the poison"?). The underlying, well taken theme that an IPM approach can lead to reduced reliance on pesticides has to compete with less constructive ideologies, and even the title of this useful book seems geared more for sales than sober fact. *> Earthscan, 8-12 Camden High St., London NW1 0JH, UK. Fax: 44-020-7387-8998. Phone: 44-020-7387-8558.earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk. Web: www.earthscan.co.uk. WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES

SLOWING GLYPHOSATE RESISTANCE

A collaborative effort spearheaded by the National Glyphosate Sustainability Working Group (in Australia) offers two free, high impact, single web pages aimed at slowing the development of weed resistance to glyphosate-based herbicides. The first page, a guide to minimizing the risk of glyphosate resistance titled, "Keeping Glyphosate Resistance Rare in Australian Cropping," offers suggestions for tipping the balance in favor of avoiding, or at least minimizing, glyphosate resistance in widely dispersed weed, Lolium perenne (annual ryegrass) www.weeds.crc.org.au .(Ed.'s note: "glyphoste" intentionally misspelled as on web site). The page lists risk-decreasing production practices as well as those to be shunned as risk-increasing. The second page, "What to do if You Suspect Glyphosate Resistance," advises growers to follow various steps and, if after reviewing the situation, resistance is still suspected, provides regional specialists to contact. This page is at: www.weeds.crc.org.au .

DISEASE IMPACTS COCONUT

A 2004 visual report on "Lethal Yellowing Disease of Coconut in Ghana, seen through the eyes of a researcher," (R. Bourdeix with N. Pons), can be found at www.cirad.fr Some dozen full color photos reveal the devastation being caused in plantation coconut (the disease can kill a healthy coconut palm tree in six months) as well as the breeding work ongoing to establish disease-resistant lines.

PAN-UK REPORTS ON 2004 WORK

One of the world's more active watchdog organizations concerning use of pesticides is Pesticide Action Network-UK (PAN-UK), a British charity operating under the banner of "an independent body working to eliminate the hazards of pesticides," and an active player in a global web of like minded groups. Summarizing last year's activities, PAN-UK has published REVIEW 2004, an attractive 16-page, softbound report explaining background rationale and progress of the group's various projects and programs in the UK, Europe, and internationally in tandem with collaborating network units. *> PAN-UK, 56-64 Leonard St., London EC2A 4JX, UK. Fax: 44-020-7065-0907. admin@pan-uk.org. Phone: 44-020-7065-0905. Web: www.pan

GLOBAL DIRECTORY CHANGES HANDS

The CROP PROTECTION DIRECTORY, a long-running "who's who" in international crop protection, has a new owner. London, UK-based AIS (Agricultural Information Services) announced in April that it had purchased the Directory and, in addition to producing the traditional hard copy version, had launched an on-line version. A free trial of the new online directory can be accessed from the AIS website at: www.aisglobal.net The Directory was first published in 1988 by founder and well-known agricultural journalist E. Warrell. An international edition arrived later. New owner AIS specializes in providing information and consultation to industries supplying inputs to agriculture and non-crop pest control. *> R. Parker, AIS, 9 Bovingdon Rd., London SW62AP, UK. Fax: 44-20-7371-9072. RodParker@aisglobal.net. Phone: 44-20-7371-8913. PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

WOODY PLANT HEALTH CARE MANAGER,

Connecticut, USA. * Deliver progressive, ecologically-enlightened plant health care programs to clients. * REQUIRES: BS in a related discipline; background in arboriculture, entomology, or related areas; woody plantidentification skills; excellent communication ability; broad knowledge of plant protection. * Contact: K. Price, Green Cross, Inc., 94 Taylor Ave., Norwalk, CT 06854, USA. hortjobs@greenx.com.Fax: 1-203-299-0192. Phone: 1-203-838-2505.Web: www.greenx.com. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

LURE WITH LESS ALLURE

Commercially offered three- and four-component Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) pheromone lures, while effective for the targeted pest insect, were found to also have high nontarget arthropod capture rates, thereby complicating critical S. frugiperda monitoring efforts in some high incidence regions. The solution that evolved is a new two-component device developed in collaboration with industry and known as the "FAW-PSU Lure" that, while capturing fewer S. frugiperda than triple and quad pheromone lures, has a much greater specificity, a distinct advantage for conducting accurate monitoring. The new lure is now available commercially. *> Scentry Biologicals, Inc., 610 Central Ave., Billings, MT 59102, USA. Fax: 1-406-245-2790. Phone; 1-406-245-3016. scentry@imt.net. Web: www.scentry.com. thanks to E.G.Rajotte for information. NOTABLE & QUOTABLE

"IN THE PAST, cotton growers have rejected IPM after they were told that their traditional approach was 'wrong' and the gulf between their practices and an IPM approach appeared to be insurmountable. A more constructive and effective approach in Australia has been to point out IPM practices that are already widespread at the grower level (such as scouting crops and spraying on thresholds) and then provide practical tools that allow growers and consultants to make the next step forward." J. Holloway, in: "Integrated Pest Management in Conventional and Transgenic Cotton," 2005. "MOST IMPORTANTLY, our experience shows that IPM is good for our economy as well as our environment. Pesticide users who employ IPM save the time and expense associated with the use of highly-toxic, highly-regulated pesticides. It's a win-win situation for business, workers and the public, and for our air and water." M.A. Warmerdam, Director, California Dept. of Pesticide Regulation in a January 2005 press release. "WEEDS COST the economy 10 to 20 times more than salinity, affect biodiversity, and have a detrimental impact on the environment." S. Lisle, Noxious Weeds Coordinator Dept. of Primary Industries, Wellington, AUSTRALIA
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

Phytopathology "Biological Control of Blossom Blight of Alfalfa Caused by Boytrytis cinerea Under Environmentally Controlled Field Conditions," Li, G.Q., et al. * PLANT DIS., 88(11), 1246-1251, November 2004.

"Field Reaction to Sclerotinia Blight among Transgenic Peanut Lines Containing Antifungal Genes," Chenault, K.D., et al. * CROP SCI., 45(2), 511-515, March-April 2005.

Weed Science

"A Comparative Ecological Risk Assessment for Herbicides Used on Spring Wheat: The Effect of Glyphosate when Used within a Glyphosate-Tolerant Wheat System," Peterson, R.K.D., and A.G.Hulting. * WEED SCI., 52(5), 834-844, September 2004.

"Weed Control in Sugar Beet Using Genetically Modified Herbicide tolerant VarietiesA Review of the Economics for Cultivation in Europe," Marlander, B. * JRNL. OF AGRON. AND CROP SCI., 191(1), 64-74, February 2005.

Entomology

"Anthropogenic Changes in Tropospheric Composition Increase Susceptibility of Soybean to Insect Herbivory," Hamilton, J.G., et al. * ENVIRON. ENTOM., 34(2), 479-485, April 2005.

"Integrated Pest Management in Conventional and Transgenic Cotton," Holloway, J. * PFLANZ. NACH. BAYER, 58(1), 105-118, 2005.

"Prospects for Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera, Aleyrodidae) in Greenhouse Tomatoes of Southern Spain," Stansly, P.A., et al. * CROP PROT., 23(8), 701-712, August 2004.

Bt Sub-section "Effects of Plants Genetically Modified for Insect Resistance on Nontarget Organisms," O'Callaghan, M., et al. * ANN. REV. OF ENTOM., 50, 271-292, 2005.

"Sources, Sinks, and the Zone of Influence of Refuges for Managing Insect Resistance of Bt Crops," Carriere, Y., et al. * ECOLOG. APPLIC., 14(6), 1615-1623, December 2004.

Vertebrate Management

"Effects of Female Scents on the Trappability of Northern Pocket Gophers Thomomys talpoides)," Proulx, G. * CROP PROT., 23(11), 1055-1060, November 2004.

General

"Effects of Straw Mulch on Pest Insects, Predators, and Weeds in Watermelons and Potatoes," Johnson, J.M., et al. * ENVIRON. ENTOM., 33(6), 1632-1643, December 2004.

"Influences of Preceding Cover Crops on Slug Damage and Biological Control Using Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita," Vernava, M.N., et al. * ANNS. OF APPLD. BIOL., 145(3), 279-284, December 2004.
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U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments

A Bad Mix: Pesticides for Different Uses

Every major soybean producing region in the world is infected with Phakospora pachyrhizi (Asian soybean rust), most recently portions of the U.S. in 2004 with more of the country expecting the fungus to arrive in 2005. Fungicides are the only effect means of control currently. In an effort to reduce across-field passes, especially in light of ever-increasing fuel costs, growers may be tempted to combine fungicides with other pesticides in a single-pass application.

Bad idea say the experts, particularly a herbicide-fungicide mix. Timing is the first problem; usually the time to apply a rust-inhibiting fungicide is later in the growing cycle than the optimum time for herbicide application. Second, the nature of the two products and how they are best applied is quite different. Fungicides are typically sprayed at high pressures to produce a spectrum of smaller size droplets to achieve canopy penetration and leaf coverage. Herbicides, on the other hand, require low pressure and larger droplets, are applied at very low carrier volumes, and require precautions to guard against drift. There are other incompatibilities as well.

Plant pathologist G.E. Shaner and weed scientist colleagues G. Nice and W. Johnson, in their recent weed science extension paper, "Fungicides, Herbicides and Soybean Rust, Do they Mix?" on line at: www.btny.purdue.edu observe that, while saving sprayer trips across fields holds appeal, jeopardizing the efficacy of the product applied can easily generate costs that outweigh any savings gained.

Dr. Shaner observed that if spraying apparatus is properly equipped and adjusted to effectively apply a herbicide, it will be ineffective in applying a fungicide, and vice-versa.

The publication presents important label data to further support the advice to forego mixing herbicides and fungicides. *> G.E. Shaner, Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA. ShanerG@purdue.edu . Phone: 1-765-494-4651. excerpted, with thanks, from a Purdue Extension Weed Science publication, and from a Purdue/Ohio State Extension document, "Fungicides don't Always do Well in 'Mixed' Company."
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)


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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries (only)

2005 (N) 27-29 July * 32ND CONGRESO NACIONAL, SOCIEDAD COLOMBIANA DE ENTOMOLOGIA (SOCOLEN), Ibague, COLOMBIA. Contact: A.E. Bustillo, Cenicafe-FNC, Km. 4, Via Antigua a Manizales, Manizales, Caldas, COLOMBIA. Fax: 57-685-04723. Phone: 57-685-06550, ext. 331. AlexE.Bustillo@cafedecolombia.com. Web: www.socolen.org.co (N) 09-11 August * 2005 NEW ZEALAND PLANT PROTECTION CONFERENCE, Wellington, NEW ZEALAND. * Contact: S. Reid, NZ Plant Prot. Soc., PO Box 11 094, Hastings, NEW ZEALAND. secretary@nzpps.org.

(N) 14-19 August * 9TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE ORTHOPTERISTS' SOCIETY, Canmore, AL, CANADA. Contact: D. Johnson, Univ. of Lethbridge, 4401 Univ. Dr., Lethbridge, AL T1K 3M4, CANADA. Fax: 1-403-329-5159. Phone: 1-403-329-2111. Dan.Johnson@uleth.ca. Web: people.uleth.ca (N) 17-18 August * 2ND WEED SOCIETY OF VICTORIA BIENNIAL WEED CONTROL CONFERENCE, Bendigo, VIC, AUSTRALIA. Contact: R. Shepherd, WSV, PO Box 987, Frankston, VIC 3199, AUSTRALIA. secwssv@surf.net.au. Fax/phone: 61-03-9576-2949. Web: home.vicnet.net.au (N) 05-09 September * 9TH EUROPEAN WORKSHOP ON INSECT PARASITOIDS, Cardiff, UK. Contact: J.S. Noyes, Nat. Hist. Museum, Cromwell Rd., S. Kensington, London SW7 5BD, UK. JSN@nhm.ac.uk Phone: 44-207-942-5594.

(N) 11-15 September * 8TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON THYSANOPTERA AND TOSPOVIRUSES, Pacific Grove, CA, USA. Contact: B.K. Wing, Dept. of Entomology, 367 Briggs Hall, Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616-8584, USA. BKWing@ucdavis.edu. Fax: 1-530-752-1537. Phone: 1-530-752-0492. Web: www.istt2005.net. (N) 13-16 September * INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE: LEARNING FROM THE EC REDUCING IMPACT OF MYCOTOXINS IN TROPICAL AGRICULTURE, Accra, GHANA. Contact: R. Bandyopadhyay, IITA, c/o L.W. Lambourn, Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Rd., Croydon CR9 3EE, UK. R.Bandyopadhyay@cgiar.org. Fax: 234-2-241-2221. Phone: 234-2-241-2626, ext. 2844. Web: www.iita.org (N) 26-29 September * 13TH ANNUAL NORTH AMERICAN WEED MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION CONFERENCE, Manhattan, KS, USA. Contact: M. Friesen, phone: 1-620-873-8730. MJFriesen@sbcglobal.net.

(N) 23-26 October * 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BACTERIAL PLANT DISEASES, Darmstadt, GERMANY. Contact: BBA, Inst. for Biocontrol, Heinrichstr. 243, 64287 Darmstadt, GERMANY. symposium2005@bba.de. Phone: 49-6151-407-242. Fax: 49-6151-407-290. Web: www.bba.de

(N) 03-06 January * 60TH ANNUAL MEETING, NORTHEAST WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY, Providence, RI, USA. Joint with 7TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE NORTHEAST AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT SOCIETY. Contact: T. Dutt, TEDutt@ptd.net, phone: 1-610-285-2006.

(N) 03-06 July * 1ST INTERNATIONAL ASCOCHYTA WORKSHOP ON GRAIN LEGUMES, Le Tronchet, Brittany, FRANCE. Contact: Exec. Secretariat, Euro. Assn. for Grain Legume Rsch., 12 ave. George V, 75008 Paris, FRANCE. Fax: 33-1-4723-5872. Phone: 33-1-4069-4909. aep@prolea.com. Web: www.grainlegumes.com * 2010

No (N)ew or [R]evised listings to report for these years.
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