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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


July 2005, Issue no. 139
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Bt Maize Planted in Kenya

A long, uncompromisingly careful research program culminated on 27 May 2005 when scientists associated with the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project planted the first transgenic Bt maize in a Kenyan field in a step to thwart the 30 percent and greater yield loss caused by Chilo partellus (stem borer).

IRMA scientists led by S. Mugo have patiently followed each exacting procedure and required governmental clearance before being allowed to import transgenic maize seed. The field trials are being undertaken to verify the results from trials held at a biosafety greenhouse, which was officially opened in June of 2004. Researchers will now be checking to see how the transgenic maize holds up under field conditions.

"Stem borers destroy some 400,000 tons of maize in Kenya each year, nearly equal to the nation's annual imports of the crop," said R. Kiome, Director of the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). By growing Bt maize plants, farmers won't have to worry about the pest or have to apply pesticide to counteract the destruction, Dr. Kiome said. "This is part of an innovative approach to help Kenyan farmers fight the insect pests, and it translates into increased food security and incomes," he asserted.

IRMA, a joint research project of KARI and CIMMYT (Centro Internacional Mejoriamento Maize y Trigo International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center), is supported by the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture and the Rockefeller Foundation, and was launched in 1999 with a primary goal of increasing maize production and food security for African farmers through the development and deployment of improved maize varieties that provide high resistance to insects, particularly stem borers. The Kenya Bt maize experiment is the first of its kind in the region.

CIMMYT's Dr. Mugo noted that the trials will serve two purposes: 1) to determine the effectiveness of various transgenic Bt genes against common Kenyan stem borers; and, 2) plants will be crossed with Kenyan maize lines as part of a breeding process that will produce Bt maize varieties adapted to Kenyan growing conditions. The project is also developing stem borer resistant varieties using conventional breeding, Mugo said.

The trials are being conducted in strict accordance with terms proscribed by the Kenyan plant health regulatory body KEPHIS and the KARI and National Biosafety Committees, Mugo stresses. The open quarantine site where the confined trials are underway was built to their specifications and includes many biosafety and security measures to ensure that pollen, seed, or plant materials do not escape the trial area or cross inadvertently with maize not included in the experiment. *> S. Mugo, IRMA Project Mgr., PO Box 25171, Nairobi, KENYA. S.Mugo@cgiar.org. Fax: 254-2-522879. Phone: 254-2-522878. excerpted, with thanks, from a CIMMYT news release. GLOBAL IPM SNAPSHOTS

Studies found that Bt cotton, in its first two years in India, provided substantial benefits for farmers, but raised questions of sustainability. *-> S. Morse, S.Morse@reading.ac.uk. The advantage of transgenic plants expressing multiple "stacked" Bt genes in slowing evolution of pest insect resistance may be compromised by simultaneously deploying single-gene plants with a similar toxin gene. *-> A.M. Shelton, AMS5@cornell.edu. Propane canons and flagging were found to be cost-efficient, non-lethal means of protecting winter wheat from Branta canadensis (Canada goose). *-> D. Drake, Drake@aesop.rutgers.edu. Two rapid, nondestructive tests can determine whether a troublesome weed, Conyza canadensis (horseweed), is resistant to glyphosate herbicide. *-> C. Koger, CKoger@msa-stoneville.ars.usda.gov
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

IPM for Weed Management

Weeds, though they usually do not chew, crawl, or buzz, can be managed under an IPM approach parallel in philosophy to IPM applied to pest insects. In a recent publication, a series of meetings involving growers and specialists developed a list of tactics for weed IPM.

Some of the key steps for IPM weed management are: scout fields, including boundaries, for weed emergence; keep records of where and when which weed species appear; act promptly to prevent weed infestations; utilize crop rotation to thwart weed colonization; take action to keep weeds from going to seed and spreading; plant cover crops when feasible to suppress weed emergence; if applying fertilizer, use methods such as banding to make it available primarily to crop plants and not to weeds; use no-till or minimum tillage if possible, or full tillage only when necessary; consider other means of decreasing weeds' impact such as mowing or rolling; if herbicides are used, be knowledgeable and cautious with the product apply herbicides strictly according to label specifications and only under appropriate weather conditions; use appropriate means to eradicate any herbicide-resistant weeds; apply field hygiene to avoid transferring weed seed from one area to another; combine various weed management methods in an overall strategy. interpretively and loosely excerpted, with thanks, from: INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT, Michigan State Univ., extension bull. E-2931, 2005,(reviewed in IPMnet NEWS #138, June 2005). PUBLICATIONS PERUSED

CONSTRAINING A PEST INSECT

A 2005 publication, WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM, ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, offers a comprehensive review of current knowledge for Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (western corn rootworm) a major economic pest of maize in the Americas that now has invaded Europe. Editors S. Vidal, et al, draw comparisons between crop protection techniques targeted at D. v. virgifera in North America and their potential usefulness in Europe. The hardbound, 319-page monograph discusses cultural, biotechnical, and biocontrol measures, the latter emphasizing the potential of Celatoria compressa as a biocontrol agent. Baseline data such as population dynamics of the pest insect in North America and Europe are presented as well as economic thresholds and behavioral aspects. The volume's information has relevance not only to currently infested areas, but also to limit this pest insect's occurrence and damage potential as it spreads into other as yet uninfested agroecological areas. *> CABI Publishing, CAB International Wallingford, Oxforshire OX10 8DE, UK. cabi@cabi.org. Fax: 44-0-1491-833508. Phone: 44-0-1491-832111. Web: www.cabi WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES

ON-LINE WEED INFORMATION SOURCES

On-line sources of weed information are numerous and widely scattered, prompting one researcher to ask, which might be the 10 most useful sites, and another researcher to provide an intriguing answer, broadly excerpted as follows.

Invasive species specialist E.A. Sellers, in responding to the question, commented that defining a 'Top-10' site is difficult because every information search is different, depending on the target species and the region(s) where it's invasive or a native. A useful starting point, suggested Dr. Sellers, is a quick general search, followed by more specific searching and information from web-based species lists and fact sheets.

For broad general information about weeds, Sellers notes several sites (not necessarily in order of preference and predominantly in the U.S.) including: The IUCN-ISSG's Global Invasive Species Database; www.issg.org Weeds Australia; www.weeds.org.au The US National Park Service's Weeds Gone Wild (Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas); www.nps.gov The Center for Invasive Plant Management; www.weedcenter.org The Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants; aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu The INVADERS Plant Database; invader.dbs.umt.edu The Center for Integrated Pest Management; cipm.ncsu.edu The Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE); invasives.eeb.uconn.edu International Databases; www.invasivespecies.gov Terrestrial Plants Databases; www.invasivespecies.gov Aquatic Plants Databases; www.invasivespecies.gov Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN): www.gisinetwork.org Note: Readers may wish to suggest their own favorite weed sites which IPMnet NEWS could mention in a future issue. *> E.A. Sellers, Invasive Species Information Node, USGS National Program Office, 12201 Sunrise Valley Dr., Mail Stop 302, Reston, VA 20192, USA. ESellers@usgs.gov. Fax: 1-703-648-4385. Phone: 1-703-648-4385. excerpted, with many thanks, from information shared by E.A. Sellers.

HERBICIDE INJURY TO SOYBEANS

A new, full color, on-line fact sheet offers a QUICK GUIDE TO HERBICIDE INJURY ON SOYBEAN. The 2005 document can be freely downloaded from www.ipm.uiuc.edu and illustrates "typical" stages and symptoms resulting from applying herbicides with varying modes of action. Close-up photos help define the nature of specific injury to soybean plant parts such as stunting, leaf appearance, stem lesions, etc. *> D.E. Nordby, Crop Science, Univ. of Illinois, 1102 S. Goodwin, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. Phone: 1-217-244-7497. DNordby@uiuc.edu PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES

PLANT PATHOLOGIST, Ibadan, NIGERIA * Assist in research on pathogen diversity, epidemiology, host-plant resistance, and integrated management of disease of maize, soy-bean, banana, and cassava; conduct, publish, and communicate research on pathogenic fungi and bacteria related to crops; conduct surveys to identify disease occurrence; collaborate on research to enhance resistance. * REQUIRES: PhD in plant pathology; experience in molecular biology and statistical tools; demonstrated ability to conduct field and lab research; competency in effective interaction with variety of stakeholders; computer proficiency; English and French language ability. * CONTACT: V. Waiyaki, Human Resources Manager, IITA, c/o Lambourn Ltd., Carolyn House, 26 Dingwall Rd., Croydon CR9 3EE, UK. iita-hr@cgiar.org. Web: www.iita.org PESTICIDE / FARM SAFETY COORDINATOR, Corvallis, OR, USA * Plan, implement, and coordinate pesticide safety educational programs within the State of Oregon; provide pesticide safety support to extension programs, other agencies, and various regional groups; promote adoption of farm safety practices; evaluate and prioritize IPM educational needs in schools.* REQUIRES: BS degree and two years of experience; technical pesticide application knowledge; fluency in spoken and written Spanish and English; education and outreach skills; ability to effectively collaborate with diverse groups and co-workers; superior oral and written communication ability. * CONTACT: P.C. Jepson, IPPC, 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331-2907, USA.JepsonP@science.oregonstate.edu. Fax: 1-541-737-3080.Phone: 1-541-737-9082. Web: oregonipm.ippc.orst.edu. CONSULTANTS, Tainan, TAIWAN * The World Vegetable Center at the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center invites individuals with experience in horticultural IPM, entomology, plant pathology, and other disciplines to submit applications for short- and long-term consultant positions involved with research and development projects. * REQUIRES: minimum of five years post-graduate work, experience working in developing countries, and professional expertise. CONTACT: Asian Vegetable Research Development Center, PO Box 42, Tainan 741, TAIWAN.avrdcbox@avrdc.org. Fax: 886-6-583-0009. Phone: 886-6-583-7801. Web: www.avrdc.org

TECHNICAL & SCIENTIFIC COORDINATOR, BioIPM, California, USA. * Collaborate with qualified groups to develop region-specific and crop-specific verifiable environmental performance standards for implementation of Biointensive IPM practices and reduction of pesticide use; convene and direct peer review committees to strengthen and evaluate proposed standards; implement plans to underwrite and amplify standards; work with staff to research, develop, and market new certification programs; write grant proposals. * REQUIRES: PhD in agricultural sciences or minimum of 2-3 years equivalent agricultural experience/scientific background in a relevant field; familiarity with BioIPM systems; understanding and commitment to development of measurement methodologies for quantification of BioIPM adoption; knowledge of federal programs; computer program skills; effective communication ability; capacity to work independently; fluency in English (and Spanish preferred). * CONTACT: R. Kelvin, Deputy Director, Protected Harvest, 1211 Brunswick Court, Arnold, MD 21012, USA.Rochelle@protectedharvest.org. Fax: 1-410-626-7732.Phone: 1-410-757-4234. Web: www.protectedharvest.com. INSECT MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST, Blackville, SC, USA * Responsible for planning, developing, and implementing research programs for cotton insect management; participate in related regional activities; provide variety of support to extensionists. * REQUIRES: PhD in entomology or related discipline; cotton or other field crop experience; ability to provide requisite technical support for stakeholders; capacity to secure external funding and to publish scientific literature. * CONTACT: J.D. Mueller, Edisto R.E.C., 64 Research Rd., Blackville, SC 29817, USA. Fax: 1-803-284-3684.JMllr@clemson.edu. Phone: 1-803-284-3343. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES

WIPING OUT WEEDS CAREFULLY

An Australian firm has developed a direct contact herbicide applicator (often referred to as a weed "wiper") with a unique twist: an electronically controlled hydrostat system that maintains the weed contact wiping surface at optimum wetness levels to ensure positive application to tall weeds rising above the crop canopy, but without herbicide drips. The firm's "Weedswiper," said to be the only wiper with this feature, retains the correct saturation level of a contact herbicide regardless of travel speed or weed density. Absence of drips conserves herbicide and avoids unintentional killing of crops or pasture. The control device is linked to moisture sensors in the contact pad and operates with a single knob mounted in a convenient location for the operator of the tractor, all-terrain vehicle, or other unit on which the Weedswiper is mounted. *> J. Maddock, Agtronix, PO Box 101, Kingston, TAS 7051, AUSTRALIA. agtronixjv@southcom.com.au. Fax: 61-3-6229-7629. Phone: 61-3-6229-6365. Web: tractornet.com NOTABLE/QUOTABLE

"What the FSE [farm scale evaluations] make clear is that GM crops and their associated management will have to satisfy the public's concerns over environmental impact if introduced to the the UK, and more widely, Europe." D.A. Bohan Rothamstead Research "Since European settlement, more than 28,000 plants have been introduced into Australia. Almost one in ten of these has turned out to be a weed which causes damage to food production or to the environment, poses a health or bushfire risk, or inflicts major economic damage." R. McFadyen Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management CORRECTIONS TO PREVIOUS ISSUE

Corrections for IPMnet NEWS #138, June 2005:

In: Section II, "IPM MEDLEY" Under: "PUBLICATIONS PERUSED" In the item: "CONTEMPORARY WEED MANAGEMENT" the first author of the publication INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT, ONE YEAR'S SEEDING . should have been listed as A.S. Davis and not D.R. Mutch.

IPMnet NEWS regrets including incorrect information, as well as any inconvenience, problem, or frustration it may have caused. Ed.
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM

* THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

Phytopathology "Effect of Cultural Methods on Leaf Spot Mycosphaerella fragariae and Gray Mold Botrytis cinerea Damage in Strawberries," Schmid, A., et al. * BIOCONTOL, 50(1), 179-194, February 2005.

"Reduced Risk Fungicides Help Manage Brown Rot and Other Fungal Diseases of Stone Fruit," Adaskaveg, J.E., et al. * CALIF. AGRIC., 59(2), 109-114, April-June 2005.

Weed Science

"Ethical Reflections on Herbicide-resistant Crops," Madsen, K.H., and P. Sandoe. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 61(3), 318-325, March 2005.

"Managing Volunteer Potato Solanum tuberosum in Field Corn with Mesotrione and Arthropod Herbivory," Boydston, R., and M.M. Williams II. * WEED TECH., 19(2), 443-450, May 2005.

Entomology

"Post-release Evaluation of Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci Biotype "B" in the USA and the Development of Predictive Tools to Guide Introductions for other Countries," Goolsby, J.A., et al. * BIOL. CONTROL, 32(1), 70-77, January 2005.

"The Need for Effective Marking and Tracking Techniques for Monitoring the Movements of Insect Predators and Parasitoids," Lavandero, B., et al. * INTL. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 50(2), 147-151, July-September 2004.

Bt Sub-section "Effects of Bt Maize Expressing Cry1Ab and Bt Spray on Spodoptera littoralis," Dutton, A., et al. * ENTOMO. EXP. ET APPLIC., 114(3), 161-169, March 2005.

Vertebrate Management "The Effect of Simulated House Mouse Damage to Wheat in Australia," Brown, P.R. * CROP PROT., 24(2), 101-109, February 2005.

General

"Agrobiotechnology in Developing Countries: North-South Partnerships are the Key," Tollens, E., et al. * OUTLOOK ON AGRIC., 33(4), 231-238, December 2004.

"Potential of Crotalaria Species as Green Manure Crops for the Man- agement of Pathogenic Nematodes and Beneficial Mycorrhizal Fungi," Germani, G., and C. Plenchette. * PLANT AND SOIL, 266(1-2), 333-342, January 2005.
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U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS AND THE IPM-CRSP --- news, developments

Relationship of Herbicide Resistant Crops and Weeds

The 2005 season may see plantings of a crop with what is being touted as the biotech industry's "first triple trait offering," maize with three "stacked genes" that not only provide "in-seed protection" against two troublesome pest insects, but now have an added tolerance for a class of widely used herbicides.

In vast areas of the U.S. midwest where the dominant crop rotation is maize with soybean well over 80 percent of the latter now being herbicide tolerant varieties year after year application of the same type of herbicide could spawn a flush of herbicide resistant weeds, a troubling longer term prospect for some knowledgeable scientists.

"What will happen," rhetorically asked one veteran agriculturalist, "when year in and year out, no matter the crop, the same herbicide gets used? It's a recipe for big trouble," he asserted.

In fact, varying weed management strategies, including avoiding repeated use of herbicide with the same site of action, especially within in one growing season, is one of the key strategies for reducing the risk of weeds developing herbicide resistance according to Oregon State Univ. weed scientist J.B. Colquhoun.

Writing in a recent extension service newsletter, Dr. Colquhoun suggests several tactics to guard against generating an herbicide resistant weed, in this instance Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass). Scouting for weeds that persist after herbicide application and removing them before they flower and reproduce are important steps. So too is carefully cleaning equipment before leaving a site with suspected resistant plants. Containing the problem and not allowing to worsen is another action Colquhoun advises.

But the concern remains over relying on several key crops with built-in resistance to the same herbicide class as a primary means of weed management. Scientists will increasingly be monitoring the incidence of herbicide resistant weed development in the wake of new technology. *> J.B. Colquhoun, Crop/Soil Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Phone: 1-541-737-8868. Fax:1-541-737-3407.Jed.Colquhoun@oregonstate.edu
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)


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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries to the IPMnet CALENDAR

2005 (N) 13 July * ADVANCES IN POTATO CYST NEMATODE MANAGEMENT, Newport, Shropshire, UK. Contact: P. Haydock, CERC, Harper Adams Univ. College, Newport, Shropshire TF10 8NB, UK. PHaydock@harper-adams.ac.uk. Web: qs.aqvs.co.uk (N) 28-29 September * BIOPESTICIDE APPLICATION WORKSHOP, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks, UK. Contact: R. Bateman, IPARC, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, UK. R.Bateman@imperial.ac.uk. Web: qs.aqvs.co.uk (N) 28-29 September * CONFERENCE, INSECTICIDE-FREE PEST MANAGEMENT?, Holme, Peterborough, UK. Contact: AAB, c/o Warwick HRI, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK. Carol.aab@warwick.ac.uk. www.aab.org.uk .

(N) 10-11 November * NATIONAL ASPARAGUS WEEDS MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP, Adelaide, SA, AUSTRALIA. Contact: D. Gannaway, GPO Box 2834, Adelaide, SA 5001, AUSTRALIA. Phone: 61-08-8303-9748. Fax: 61-08-8303-9555. Gannaway.Dennis@sagov.sa.gov.au. Web: www.weeds.org.au

(N) 28 November * SYMPOSIUMTRANSGENIC HERBICIDE TOLERANT CROPS: AGRONOMY, ENVIRONMENT AND BEYOND, Niagara Falls, ON, CANADA. Contact: C.J. Stanton, Dept. of Plant AGRIC., Univ. of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, CANADA. CSwanton@uoguelph.ca. Phone: 1-519-824-4120, ext. 53392. Web: www.cwss

2006

(N) 10-12 January * INTERNATIONAL ADVANCES IN PESTICIDE APPLICATION 2006, Cambridge, UK. Contact: R. Glass, Central Sci. Lab., Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK. R.Glass@csl.gov.uk. Fax: 44-1904-462111. Phone: 44-1904-462235. Web: www.aab.org.uk

(N) 13-17 September * 9TH MEETING OF THE IOC WARS PHYTOPATHOGENS GROUP, "Fundamental and Practical Approaches to Increase Biocontrol Efficacy," Spa, Belgium. Contact: M. Hofte, Monica.Hofte@ugent.be.

2007 * 2010

No (N) ew or [R]evised listings to report for these years.
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