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September 2005, Issue no. 141
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Resisting Resistance

Push nature and sooner than expected nature may push back. With organisms humans label pests, techniques often involving application of a pesticide have helped reduce or eliminate the problem that is until a selection process began to yield individuals, then communities of species that evolve resistance to the chemicals applied.

An estimated 500+ species of insects and mites have developed tolerance to pesticides including products considered environmentally benign. In Australia, Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) is now largely resistant to insecticides. More recently certain weed species have begun to shrug off herbicides. Weed scientists across the U.S. have reported that weed plants, such as Conyza canadensis (horseweed, or mare's tail) have developed immunity to the oft used group of glyphosate-based herbicides.

Soon to appear are cultivars imbued with "stacked genes" that will include a built-in tolerance to glyphosate, a development expected to engender widely followed crop rotations capable of being treated, year around, with the same herbicide. The outcome, suggest knowledgeable agronomists, will be accelerated selection of herbicide-resistant weeds.

Time for humans to push back, and target resistance mechanisms. A promising new, two-phase technology aimed at resistant pest insects and developed by UK and Australian scientists first releases an inhibitor, such as piperonyl butoxide that inactivates pesticide-degrading enzymes which confer pesticide resistance. Once the inhibitor has penetrated the insect and rendering it vulnerable, an insecticide is released. Co-developers R.V. Gunning and G.D. Moores note that the process kills previously resistant insects while less resistant insects can be controlled with lower doses or less potent chemicals.

The challenge of needing to deliver in a single application two substances that activate hours apart was neatly solved by turning to microencapsulated formulation technology which ensures initial release of the enzyme inhibiting deactivator followed four to five hours later by release of the insecticide itself.

The patented product has been successfully used against key insect pests in what Dr. Moores noted were "some of the world's resistance hot spots," and in developing regions where, Dr. Gunning adds, over use of insecticides and consequent resistance are highly problematic. Solving weed resistance to herbicides remains a work in progress. *> R.V. Gunning, Robin.Gunning@agric.nsw.gov.au. G.D. Moores, Graham.Moores@bbsrc.ac.uk.

information excerpted, with thanks, from: CROP PROTECTION MONTHLY; G.D. Moores; Rothamsted Research science communication; and A. Shrestha. GLOBAL IPM SNAPSHOTS

Drip irrigation requires careful management to avoid increasing Verticillium dahliae in Spanish Olea europaea (olive) orchards. *-> M.A. Blanco-Lopez, MBlanco@uco.es.

In Australia, Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) has "jumped the garden fence" to become an invasive plant that "potentially could be even worse than blackberries," according to one scientist. *-> J. Weiss, John.Weiss@nre.vic.gov.au.

Trap crop attractiveness to Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) was enhanced by earlier, denser planting compared to a main crop. *-> F.R. Badenes-Perez, FRB3@cornell.edu.

Early vigor and allelopathy provide barley and wheat crops with two useful traits for enhanced competitiveness against weeds. *-> N-O. Bertholdsson, Nils-Ove.Bertholdsson@swseed.com .
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

Time and Change for IPMnet NEWS

This 141st issue of IPMnet NEWS, published 01 September, 2005, signals nearly 12 years of monthly publication, and announces several changes. Notably, the monthly publication schedule end, replaced by one of 6-week intervals between issues: issue #142 will be published on 15 October, and subsequent issues on 01 December; 15 January, 2006; 01 March; 15 April; 01 June; and 15 July for a total of eight issues annually compared with 12 presently.

Less obvious is a key addition to the organizations that generously underwrite IPMnet NEWS. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service has been joined by the U.S. Agency for International Development's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) in supporting the NEWS. Periodic news about the latter program and its far flung projects will emerge periodically in a new section. Overall, individual NEWS issues will expand to accommodate broader coverage and less frequent publication.

Another change involves the Consortium for International Crop Protection from whence IPMnet sprung. M. Kogan, a name well known throughout the IPM firmament and a prime force behind the launch of IPMnet NEWS, has agreed to serve as the Consortium's interim executive director; former director and widely recognized plant pathologist R.E. Ford retired after years of dedicated service to the Consortium and global encouragement of IPM.

Not changing will be IPMnet's long-time linkage and fruitful working relationship with the Integrated Plant Protection Center at Oregon State Univ. (U.S.) under the direction of P.C. Jepson.

Another unchanged aspect is the valued participation of over 3,600 email subscribers to the NEWS and uncounted web visitors. As a group, NEWS readers/recipients represent the leading edge of IPM technology, implementation, innovation, and education. And we involved with the NEWS are respectful and appreciative of this multi-talented and erudite readership that is working to bring evermore effective and environmentally aware pest management to a world strongly in need of it. A.E. Deutsch PUBLICATIONS PERUSED


A 2005 reference presents an overview based on contributions by 34international experts delving into the expanding topic of plant derived crop protection agents and the potential they offer in IPM practices. In 17 chapters and 336 pages, BIOPESTICIDES OF PLANT ORIGIN editors C.Regnault-Roger, et al, group discussions on usage in crop protection formulations, searches for new supply sources, plus current and future commercial development. The hardbound work, said to be an original never before published approach, ranges from early botanicals, to allelopathy, through to molecular chemistry and the realm of transgenic plant material. *> A. Ars, Lavoisier, 14, rue de Provigny, 94236 Cachan cedex, FRANCE. Ars@lavoisier.fr. Fax: 33-0-1474-06702. Phone: 33-0-1474-06700. Web: www.lavoisier.fr.


The Complexity of Fungal Communities

Given that there are an estimated 1.5 million fungal species possibly existing in the world, the editors and their global contingent of contributing experts faced a daunting prospect in preparing a new third edition of THE FUNGAL COMMUNITYITS ORGANIZATION AND ROLE IN THE ECOSYSTEM. The hardbound volume (vol. 23 of the Mycology series) addresses numerous issues related to observations, characterizations, and functional attributes of fungal assemblages and their interaction with the environment and other organisms. Editors J. Dighton, et al, focus on current ecological elementsdiversity and function, scaling issues, disturbance, and invasive speciesfrom a fungal perspective. The 2005, 956-page edition not only is said to bridge gaps between ecological concepts and mycology, but provide insight into the complexity of studying fungal communities and the importance they may have on broad, ecosystem, landscape, and local scales. Seven pages of full color illustrations compliment numerous black and white graphics.

A Portrait of Allelopathy

ALLELOPATHYCHEMISTRY AND MODE OF ACTION OF ALLELOCHEMICALS is aptly titled as it primarily focuses on the chemical phenomena of allelopathy rather than ecological, agronomic, or descriptive physiological aspects, important as these are. The 386-page monograph represents the writings of 44 international contributors addressing state-of-the-art developments in the chemistry and mode of action of allelopathic agents; the field is said to provide the foundation for the development of new natural herbicides that are "safer" than many commercial products. Additionally, the hardbound text includes practical aspects related to performing bioassays, as well as providing a centralized collection of otherwise widely scattered relevant literature. F.A. Macias, et al, edited the 2004 volume which serves as a useful multidisciplinary reference.

Pathogens and Plants

Volume 11 in the Annual Plant Reviews series, PLANT-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS, delivers new information regarding plant infection mechanisms and host responses. Again, a group of experts has contributed material, in this instance skillfully edited by N.J. Talbot, and covering viral-plant, bacterial-plant, fungal-plant, biotrophic fungus-plant, and oomycete-pant interactions. The hardbound, 257-page work, was published in 2004 and contains black and white illustrations. Contents emphasize the broader understanding that has emerged from the use of molecular genetics and genomics and the importance of understanding the biology of plant diseases in the pursuit of developing durable control/management strategies.

For these titles: *> K. Lewis, CRC Press/T & F Group, 600 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA. KLewis@crcpress.com. Phone: 1-877-561-994-0555.Fax: 1-561-989-9732. Web: www.crcpress.com.


R.T. Lartey and A.J. Caesar set out, in EMERGING CONCEPTS IN PLANT HEALTH MANAGEMENT, to highlight research currents they felt represent some of the most interesting thinking or visionary departures in plant health research, not necessarily the trendiest or most cutting edge work. The resulting hardbound work published in 2004 covers a wide array of topics ranging from dual purpose biocontrol (activity against both pest insects and plant pathogens) to somewhat more mainstream material concerning weed management in organic production systems. The chapter on public policy and health management includes a paper on bioterrorism as well as another describing a concept for applying IPM to leaf diseases of cereals and sugarbeets. The 306-page publication includes several full color plates as well as black and white illustrations. *> A.J. Caesar, ARS-NPARL, 1500 N. Central Ave., Sidney, MT 59270, USA. CaesarA@sidney.ars.usda.gov. Fax: 1-406-482-5038. Phone: 1-406-482-2020. WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES


Obviously a lot of people are aware of the amazing Bugwood network of websites and resources: the unique information depository recorded more than 43 million "hits" on its family of websites in 2004 as researchers, students, and others took advantage of the images and other information offered at no cost for educational purposes (and on a fee basis for commercial use). The award winning network exists to gather, create, maintain, promote the use of, and economically distribute digital information as tools, primarily in the fields of entomology, forestry, forest health, and natural resources, but in fact offers much greater diversity. The Bugwood archives contain over 30,000 downloadable images. One major image group is IPMimages and another group is devoted to invasives. Beyond the massive file of photos there are also numerous text information sources. Organism images carry full nomenclature as well as references to other sources. Listed links abound. And despite its name, Bugwood knowledgeably includes extensive files of diseases and weeds. The main website is: www.bugwood.org from which subsidiary sites can be accessed. *> G.K. Douce, Coordinator, Bugwood Network, Univ. of Georgia, PO Box 748, Tifton, GA 31793, USA. KDouce@uga.edu. Fax: 1-229-386-3352. Phone: 1-229-386-3298.


A pair of recently prepared, informative and attractive full color brochures take different approaches to describing IPM and its potentials. Canada's Prince Edward Island (PEI) Department of Agriculture and Forestry titles its 2005, 2-sided sheet, "Integrated Pest Management: Everyone Wins," keying ona strategy of increasing production of more agricultural products that incorporate facets of IPM. IPM, the narrative states, is a six-step process, spelled out (but in much more detail) as: identification; monitoring; thresholds; management; integration; and evaluation. Several down-to-earth examples are included. The PEI brochure can be downloaded from: www.gov.pe.ca *> R.M. Cheverie, PO Box 1600, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 7N3, CANADA.RMCheverie@gov.pe.ca. Fax: 1-902-368-5729. Phone: 1-902-368-6573.

The second publication, simply "Integrated Pest Management," was produced by the entomology lab at the Univ. of Vermont (U.S.) and revolves around the goal of "Healthy Plants: A Healthy Environment," and unsurprisingly emphasizes management of pest arthropods. Key IPM components, as presented in this piece, are: sanitation; pest detection; biocontrol; and, pesticides. Readers are encouraged to support businesses that utilize IPM, as well as learn to tolerate plants carrying beneficial insects, and familiarize themselves with ways to deploy IPM in home settings. *> M. Skinner, Entlab, Univ. of Vermont, 661 Spear St., Burlington, VT 05405-3400, USA. Fax: 1-802-656-7710. MSkinner@uvm.edu. Phone: 1-802-656-5440.


Number 74 in the series ASPECTS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY addresses the issues, implications, and interconnections of "GM Crops Ecological Dimensions." The 225-page work, published in 2004 by the Association of Applied Biologists (AAB), discusses elements of gene flow, biodiversity issues, the role and optimization of refuges, and other related topics. Editors H.F. van Emden and A.J. Gray invited speakers at an earlier conference to write chapters for this specific publication. The work, code #1403, is available from: AAB, c/o Warwick HRI, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF, UK. Bernadette.aab@warwick.ac.uk. Fax: 44-0-1789-470234. Web: www.aab.org.uk


With the recent arrival of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, more often referred to as Asian soybean rust, in the U.S., the nation's Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) led development of a coordinated federal, state, university, and industry collaboration for surveillance, reporting, prediction, and management of the disease for the 2005 growing season. A major result is the USDA's Soybean Rust Information Site, said to be a onestop information resource at www.usda.gov The site is designed to provide all stakeholders with timely, accurate information to aid in the activities mentioned above, especially management. A map depicts current information for areas where P. pachyrhizi has been found and areas scouted and still free of the pathogen, but reveals a steady northwesterly march of infection. thanks to W. Hoffman for information. PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES


* Develop and extend education programs on arthropods of economic importance in several of the following areas: field and forage crops, rangeland, turf, public and veterinary health, urban (indoor) situations, and 4-H; coordinate and participate in cooperative agricultural pest survey (CAPS) programs; 70 percent extension, 30 percent research. * REQUIRES: PhD or equivalent in entomology; experience in arthropod identification, sampling, and pest management (preference given for experience in extension and outreach programs); evidence of ability to sustain an extramurally funded research program. Full details are found at: Web: www.biology.usu.edu. * CONTACT: D.G. Alston, Dept. of Biology, 5305 Old Main Hill, Utah State Univ., Logan, UT 84322-5305, USA. DianeA@biology.usu.edu. Phone: 1-435-797-0054.


* Edit, write, and coordinate preparation and publication of the U.S. Pacific Northwest Insect Management Handbook (four month full time academic appointment). * REQUIRES: MS degree in a plant protection related discipline; technical knowledge of insect pest management; skills and experience in writing and technical editing to meet strict deadlines; ability to work productively with contributing scientists. * CONTACT: P.C. Jepson, Director, Integrated Plant Protection Center, 2040 Cordley Hall, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331-2907, USA. JepsonP@science.oregonstate.edu. Fax: 1-541-737-3080. Phone: 1-541-737-9082.Web: oregonstate.edu


Plan, direct, and coordinate statewide programs in the introduction, culture, and establishment of beneficial insects and other organisms; possibly other duties to be assigned. * REQUIRES: BS/BA with entomology major, or closely related field; minimum of 3 years experience in applicable activity (MS or PhD may be substituted for a portion of required experience). See full details and procedure at: www.ehawaiigov.org v EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES


A line of pest insect traps aimed at small plots and home gardens has added a new "Rescue!" brand Japanese beetle Popillia japonica trap, an all-in-one unit that uses floral scents along with natural sex attractants to lure both male and female beetles. Attracted flying beetles collide with the trap's projecting yellow panels, and, stunned by the impact, fall into an attached entrapment bag from which they cannot escape. The trap offers coverage of approximately 34 sq. meters (360 sq. feet). Another product, the SMARTrap, uses no pesticides and lures moths by use of: 1) a battery operated blue light emitting diode that makes the trap glow; and 2) a feeding attractant. "Whiskers" at the trap opening ensure that once drawn in trapped insects cannot escape, and thus perish from dehydration and lack of food. This unit is said to protect a space of approximately 14 sq. meters (150 sq. feet) from a long list of insect pests. The feeding attractant needs replenishment every 60 days and new batteries are required periodically. *> Sterling International Inc., 3808 N. Sullivan Rd., Bldg. 16 BV, Spokane, WA 99216-1616, USA. Fax: 1-509-928-7313. info@rescue.com. Web: www.rescue.com.


Keys to effective disease management are scouting and identification, followed by the important question of assessing disease extent. To determine the percentage of infection present requires close observation of plant leaves and comparison with a known standard. For Phakopsora pachyrhizi (Asian soybean rust), plant pathologists S. Bissonnette and D. Malvick at the Univ. of Illinois (U.S.) have developed a Soybean Rust Severity Key card depicting leaf surface areas showing 1, 3, 5, and 10 percent visible lesions. The durable cards, with a retractable holder and lanyard, can be used to make quick comparisons with actual field samples. A companion item is a professional quality, folding pocket magnification lens. Also available is a free CD, "Soybean RustScout Before You Spray." All the items can be ordered usingthe form at: www.ipm.uiuc.edu
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM


Phytopathology "Another Quarter Century of Great Progress in Understanding the Biological Properties of Plant Viruses," Harrison, B.D., and D.J. Robinson. * ANNS. OF APPLD. BIOL., 146(1), 15-37, January 2005.

"Potential of Fungal Antagonists for Biocontrol of Fusarium spp. in Wheat and Maize through Competition in Crop Debris," Luongo, L., et al. * BIOCONT. SCI. & TECH., 15(3) 229-242, May 2005.

Weed Science

"History and Success of Plant Pathogens for Biological Control of Introduced Weeds in Hawaii," Trujillo, E.E. * BIOL. CONTROL, 33(1), 113-122, April 2005.

"Management of Herbicide-tolerant Oilseed Rape in Europe: A Case Study on Minimizing Vertical Gene Flow," Devos, Y., et al. * ENVIRON. BIOSAFETY RESCH., 3(3), 135-148, July-September 2004.


"Parasite Behavior: Predicting Field from Laboratory," Casas, J., et al. * ECOL. ENTOM., 29(6), 657-665, December 2004.

"Pheromone Mating Disruption Offers Selective Management Options for Key Pests," Welter, S.C., et al. * CALIF. AGRIC., 59(1), 16-22, January-March 2005.

Bt Sub-section

"Abundance of Non-target Pests in Transgenic Bt-maize: A Farm-scale Study," Pons, X., et al. * EURO. JRNL. OF ENTOM., 102(1), 73-79, April 2005.

"Transgenic Corn for Control of the European Corn Borer and Corn Rootworms: A Survey of Midwestern Farmers' Practices and Perceptions," Wilson, T.A., et al. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 98(2), 237-247, April 2005. Vertebrate Management "Tank-mix Compatibility of the Entomopathogenic Nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae with Selected Chemical Pesticides Used in Turfgrass," Alumai, A., and P.S. Grewal. * BIOCON. SCI. AND TECH., 14(7), 725-730, November 2004.

Vertebrate Management

"Increasing Acceptance and Efficacy of Zinc Phosphide Rodenticide Baits via Modification of the Carbohydrate Profile," Johnston, J.J. et al. * CROP PROT., 24(4), 381-385, April 2005.


"Farmers' Perceptions of Cassava Pests and Indigenous Control Methods in Cameroon," Poubom, C.F.N., et al. * INTERNAT. JRNL. OF PEST MGMT., 51(2), 157-164, April-June 2005.

"Novel Strategies for Assessing and Managing the Risks Posed by In- vasive Alien Species to Global Crop Production and Biodiversity," Baker, R., et al. * ANNS. OF APPLD. BIOL., 146(2), 177-191, March 2005.
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Sorting Out Myriad Glyphosate Products

Popularity and patent expirations combined to trigger a tremendous expansion in glyphosate-based herbicidal products recently. To help with the daunting task of tracking product names, formulations, and costs, weed scientists A. Hager and D. Nordby at the Univ. of Illinois (U.S.) have prepared a reference for comparing numerous glyphosate formulations. The table, published in the 16 March 2005 issue of the university's "the Bulletin" newsletter, and found online at: www.ipm.uiuc.edu (scroll down to "Price Comparisons for Glyphosate Products") includes active ingredient per gallon, acid equivalent per gallon, and other measures (which can be converted to liters and hectares).

The table itself is preceded by a valuable discussion on herbicide basics as well as an explanation of the process for calculating costs, accompanied by a useful example. The cost calculation process presented can be applied to many pesticide application situations and the glyphosate product information also can have broad utility. @ Invasive Plant Reference List

The Center for Invasive Plant Management (CIPM) at Montana State Univ. (not to be confused with the Center for Integrated Pest Management at North Carolina State Univ, also know as CIPM) has published THE INVASIVE PLANT RESOURCE GUIDE, an online compendium of reference materials of all sorts related to management of, education about, and information extension for invasive plants.

The U.S.-centric document, found at www.weedcenter.org helpfully describes the numerous listed resources, and then notes where to find them on the web, or how to obtain copies. The overall thrust is one of ecological preservation and maintenance of economic value of western (U.S.) lands. However, many of the included items may well have wider geographic relevance. The Guide was produced with support from the Western (U.S.) IPM Center. *> CIPM, Montana State Univ., PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA. Fax: 1-406-994-1889.MMcFadzen@montana.edu. Phone: 1-406-994-7551. thanks to M. McFadzen for information.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

IPM Benefits Ecuadorean Potato Growers

An agricultural economics masters thesis and its findings were used as the basis for IPM CRSProgress Report no. 8, June 2005, a synopsis of activities that involved the IPM CRSP in fostering IPM practices among potato growers in the Carchi region of Ecuador.

A variety of channels farmer field schools, field days, training trainers, and written materials were used by CRSP specialists to familiarize growers with IPM techniques. A recent estimate indicated that more than 50 percent of growers in the region were now utilizing at least four out of 17 recommended IPM procedures. Field schools proved to be the most effective means of transmitting information and gaining adoption of (at least some) IPM practices.

A powerful incentive for adoption were cost-benefit analysis results: input costs for conventional production of potatoes, involving frequent spray application of fungicide against late blight, were found to be markedly higher, not to mention potentially more hazardous, compared to IPM techniques. In two out of three instances, yields were higher for IPM plots with the third being equal. And, taking into account costs and benefits, the report states that "net profits were higher in all trials, with estimates showing that the net benefit of adopting IPM is between US0 and 0 per hectare."

The IPM CRSP, a collaborative partnership among U.S. and developing country institutions, emphasizes research, education, training, and information exchange. In addition to Ecuador, the program has had involvement in Albania, Bangladesh, Eritrea, Guatemala, India, Jamaica, Mali, Philippines, and Uganda. The CRSP is now launched on its third 5-year cycle. *> IPM CRSP, 1060 L. Reaves Hall, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA 24061-0334, USA. Fax: 1-540-231-3519. Phone: 1-540-231-3513. ipm-dir@vt.edu. Web: www.ag.vt.edu thanks to M. Rich, E.A. Heinrichs, M. Mauceri, and J. Alwang for information.
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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries to the IPMnet CALENDAR

2005 (N) 05-07 October * 26TH CONGRESO ASOCIACION COLOMBIANA DE FITO- PATOLOGIA Y CIENCIAS AFINES (ASCOLFI), Bogota, COLOMBIA. Contact: ASCOLFI, Calle 37A #27-33, Palmira, Valle, COLOMBIA. ASCOLFI@telesat.com.co. Telefax: 57-92-275-0557. Web: www.telesat.com.co

(N) 11-14 October * NEVADA WEED MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION 10TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, Reno, NV, USA. Contact: S. Donaldson, Mail Stop 408, Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Fax: 1-775-784-4881. DonaldsonS@unce.unr.edu. Phone:1-775-784-4848.

(N) 01-03 November * 4TH CANADIAN WORKSHOP ON FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT, Ottawa, ONT, CANADA. * Contact: Canadian Grain Commission, 600-303 Main St., Winnipeg, MAN R3C 3G8, CANADA. contact@grainscanada.gc.ca. Fax: 1-204-983-2751. Phone: 1-204-983-2770. Web: grainscanada.gc.ca .

(N) 03-04 November * FOCUS ON AFRICA: USING SCIENCE TO IMPROVE AGRICULTURE AND ALLEVIATE POVERTY, bringing together specialists in pest management science to discuss ways in which further assistance could help significantly alleviate the pest, diseases and weed problems of the peoples of Africa, London, UK. Contact: L. Milne, SCI Conference Dept., 14/15 Belgrave Sq., London SW1X 8PS, UK. Laura.Milne@soci.org. Fax: 44-0-207-235-7743. Phone: 44-0-207-598-1578. Web: www.soci.org 13-18 November * XXVIII CONGRESO y XVI CURSO NACIONAL DE CONTROL BIOLOGICO, San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, MEXICO. Contact: M.C.F. Tamayo Mejia, FTamayo@guanajuato.gob.mx . Web: www.controlbiologico.org.mx.

(N) 13-26 November * INTERNATIONAL COURSE: SUPPORT FOR SMALL-SCALE PRODUCERS IN HORTICULTURE TO IMPROVE MARKET ACCESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA, emphasizing application of IPM in crop protection, Grabouw, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA. Contact: H.A.I. Stoetzer, International Agricultural Centre, PO Box 88, NL 6701 AB Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Huub.Stoetzer@wur.nl . Fax: 31-317-495395. Phone: 31-317-495353. Web: www.iac.wur.nl .

(N) 16-18 November * 26TH CONGRESO NACIONAL DE LA CIENCIA DE LA MALEZA, Ciudad Victoria, TAM., MEXICO. Contact: E. Rosales, Rosales.Enrique@inifap.gob.mx . Phone/fax: 52-01-899-934-1045. Web: www.agronomiayciencias.uat.edu.mx .


[R] 13-16 February * Dates corrected * WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY OF AMERICA ANNUAL MEETING, New York, NY, USA. Contact: WSSA Mtg. Manager, PO Box 7050, Lawrence, KS 66044-7050, USA. WSSA@allenpress.com . Fax: 1-785-843-1274. Phone: 1-785-843-1235. Web: www.WSSA.net.

(N) 23-25 April * EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH SOCIETY CROP-WEED INTER- ACTIONS WORKING GROUP WORKSHOP, Rothamsted, UK. Contact: L. Bastianns, Lammert.Bastianns@wur.nl . Web: www.ewrs.org.

(N) 25-28 May * CONFERENCE, WEEDS ACROSS BORDERS, Hermosillo, SON., MEXICO. Contact: Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, 2021 N. Kinney Rd., Tucson, AZ 85743, USA. borderweeds@desertmuseum.org . Web: www.desertmuseum.org /.

(N) 06-16 June * INTERNATIONAL COURSE ON IPM POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATIONS, Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Contact: H.A.I. Stoetzer, International Agricultural Centre, PO Box 88, NL 6701 AB Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Mailto: Huub.Stoetzer@wur.nl. Fax: 31-317-495395. Phone: 31-317-495353. Web: www.iac.wur.nl

(N) 11-14 June * 15TH BIENNIAL WORKSHOP ON THE SMUT FUNGI, Prague, CZECH REPUBLIC. Contact: V. Dumalasova, blazkova@vurv.cz . Fax: 420-2-333-10636.

(N) 12-15 June * III CURSO LATINOAMERICANO EN CONTROL BIOLOGICO DE MALEZAS, Managua, NICARAGUA. Contact: J. Medal, PO Box 110620, Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0620, USA. Medal@ifas.ufl.edu . Phone: 1-352-392-9807. Web: biocontrol.ifas.ufl.edu

(N) 19-30 June * INTERNATIONAL COURSE ON PESTICIDES AND FOOD SAFETY IN IPM, Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Contact: H.A.I. Stoetzer, International Agricultural Centre, PO Box 88, NL 6701 AB Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Huub.Stoetzer@wur.nl . Fax: 31-317-495395. Phone: 31-317-495353. Web: www.iac.wur.nl

(N) 06-11 August * XXI CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE ENTOMOLOGIA, "Ento- mologia: da Academia a Transferencia de Technologia," Recife, PE, BRAZIL. Contact: Depto. de Agron./Entomologia, UFRPE, Av. Dom Manoel de Medeiros S/N, Dois Irmaos, Recife, PE, 52171-900, BRAZIL. xxicbe@ufrpe.br . Fax: 55-81-3302-1205. Phone: 55-81-3302-1218. Web: www.ufrpe.br

(N) 20-25 August * 8TH INTERNATIONAL MYCOLOGICAL CONGRESS, Cairns, AUSTRALIA. Contact: W. Meyer, W.Meyer@usyd.edu.au. Web: www.australasianplantpathologysociety.org.au.


No (N) ew or [R]evised listings to report for this year.


[R] 23-26 June * Dates provided * 5TH INTERNATIONAL WEED SCIENCE CONGRESS, Vancouver, BC, CANADA. * Contact: A.J. Fischer, IWSS, Weed Science, Plant Sci. Dept., Univ. of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. AJFischer@ucdavis.edu.


No (N) ew or [R]evised listings to report for these years.
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