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October 2005, Issue no. 142
ISSN: 1523-7893 Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

Less Pesticide Used Lowers Risk

A recent study that found Ontario Province (CANADA) growers not only reduced pesticide use, but significantly lowered pesticide risk credited mandatory pesticide safety education for farmers, IPM programs, development of new technologies, better crop rotation practices, and biotechnology as major contributing factors.

The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) sponsored study, "Evaluation of the Changes in Pesticide Risk," reported in mid-2005 that the region's growers reduced the potential risk of agricultural pesticide use (to humans and the environment) by 52-61 percent since 1983.

The OMAFRA study was conducted by G.J. Gallivan, et al, and used three separate indices to evaluate the potential risk of pesticides to humans and the environment; the Environmental Impact Quotient, the Environmental Health Index, and the Priority Substances List score. Each index involves different methods of calculating potential risk with different results leading to reporting risk measurements as ranges.

However, all three scoring systems found that the reduction in potential risk was greater than the actual reduction in use, and all the indices clearly indicated reduced potential risk per kilogram of pesticide used. See: www.agcare.org *-> AGCare, Ontario AGRICentre, Suite #106, 100 Stone Rd. West, Guelph, ON N1G 5L3, CANADA. agcare@agcare.org. Fax: 1-519-837-3209. Phone: 1-519-837-1326. information excerpted, with thanks, from AGCare. Study Cites GM Crop Benefits

A new study published in the UK says that after almost a decade of use, genetically modified (GM) crops have racked up a series of benefits to the global economy and environment through decreased use of pesticides and reduced greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural activities, while also generating farm level economic gains.

The study and consequent report, "GM Crops: The Global Socio- Economic and Environmental Impact. The First Nine Years 1996-2204," both were conducted and prepared by G.J. Brookes and P.D. Barfoot, partners in the firm of PG Economics (UK), said to be "independent and objective consultants" focused on agricultural matters. No sponsor was Listed for the GM study. The full report and summary are posted at www.pgeconomics.co.uk as freely downloadable files.

The report says that, for the period studied, growers utilizing GM crops in 18 countries collectively cut pesticide use by 6 percent, equivalent to a decrease of 172.5 million kg (380 billion lb.), and reduced fuel usage by 1.8 billion L. (475 million gal.) thereby significantly lowering greenhouse gas emissions.

Economic gains were another benefit cited in the study which noted that growers in the U.S. and Argentina were the major beneficiaries, each group gaining approximately US billion in the past nine years while production of primarily GM cotton increased Chinese growers' income approximately US billion.

The authors note that more than 8.25 million farmers in 18 countries have adopted GM crops, and that ජ percent of those are resource-poor producers located in developing countries." *-> PG Economics Ltd., Wessex Barn, Frampton, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 9NB, UK. Fax: 44-0-1303-840959. Phone: 44-0-1300-321501. excerpted, with thanks, from the PG Economics website. GLOBAL IPM SNAPSHOTS

Adding surfactant, compared to using water only, improved the efficacy of applying Steinernema carpocapsae nematode for biocontrol of Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) larvae. *-> R.-U. Ehlers, Ehlers@biotec.uni-kiel.de. @ Studies indicate high concentrations of ground level ozone can reduce some crops' yields up to 30 percent but also stimulate weed competition resulting in increased herbicide usage. *-> D.A. Grantz, David.Grantz@ucr.edu. @ The website of advocacy group Truth about Trade and Technology www.truthabouttrade.org includes an interactive counting box reputed to be registering both planted and harvested acres (hectares?) of "biotech crops" around the world (over one billion). @ A fly recently identified in North America, Coenosia attenuata (Old World hunter fly), is a predator of greenhouse pest insects and thus has biocontrol potential. *-> S. Wraight, spw4@cornell.edu. @ A recent survey found 55 percent of U.S. farms own or lease a computer and 51 percent have internet access, up from 48 percent in 2003. *-> farms.com
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IPM MEDLEY --- publications and other IPM information resources

Pakistan Launches IPM Website

Pakistan recently inaugurated its National IPM Programme website at www.nat The colorful site, in addition to spelling out the programme's mission, goal, objectives, and areas of focus, lists various activities such as training-of-facilitator and training-the-trainer sessions.

To enhance public awareness, a National IPM information network is in progress so as to provide current science-based information to stakeholders, and to encourage coordination and production of IPM research and development. Emphasis will focus on facilitating and coordinating IPM implementation by provincial extension departments.

Plans call for introducing and promoting an IPM philosophy in educational institutions through including IPM elements in courses offered by universities, colleges, and schools. An overall goal is the strengthening and expansion of IPM through research, extension, and application. *-> I. Ahmad, Natl. IPM Program, NARC, Park Rd., Islamabad, PAKISTAN. IPMpak@isb.paknet.com.pk. PUBLICATIONS PERUSED


In recognition of the need for a comprehensive overview, editors A. Drenth and D.I. Guest expanded the output by a host of authors at a 2002 workshop into the 238-page publication DIVERSITY AND MANAGEMENT OF PHYTOPHTHORA IN SOUTHEAST ASIA. The softbound work focuses on which species appear on which crops and in which areas as well as the significant economic impact of phytophthoric diseases on some of the region's key crops. The text covers disease symptoms, occurrence, and development of effective integrated management practices and strategies, all presented in a comprehendible, practical vein of background and advice. The 2004 volume is Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) Monograph no. 114, incorporating several dozen full color illustrations and additional black and white plates. The editors conclude by observing that "millions of smallholders throughout Southeast Asia could benefit from an enhanced capability to recognize disease problems and implement effective disease management practices," but the region's diversity of cultures and languages, plus under-funded extension services, create a huge challenge. *-> ACIAR, GPO Box 1571, Canberra, ACT 2601, AUSTRALIA. aciar@aciar.gov.au. Fax: 61-2-6217-0501. Phone: 61-2-6217-0500. Web: www.aciar.gov.au.


A thought provoking, limited attendance workshop held in 2004 has spawned an intriguing and important publication on an increasingly critical aspect of contemporary crop production. CROP FERALITY AND VOLUNTEERISM addresses a potential threat to food security in an era of expanding transgenic crops, and increasing public concern over environmental impacts such as the mutation of "super weeds" and other perceived outcomes as growers in many regions of the world adopt transgenic crops and reduce use of pesticides. Editor J. Gressel notes that "the phenomena of volunteerism and ferality have to be considered in the transgenic era especially in relation to gene flow." From useful definitions, through 25 chapters by a group of international experts active in related pursuits, and convened by Dr. Gressel, this 445-page work provides information that is otherwise unavailable in a concentrated form to the scientific community, and serves as a step toward learning whether transgenic crops pose ferality issues differing from non-transgenic cultivars. The hardbound, 2005 work discusses the potential economic and social impact of crop ferality, particularly in relation to rice. *-> K. Lewis, CRC Press/T & F Group, 600 Broken Sound Parkway, NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA. Fax: 1-561-989-9732. KLewis@crcpress.com. Phone: 1-877-561-994-0555. Web: www.crcpress.com.


Proceedings from a British Crop Protection Council (BCPC), Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft joint symposium in June 2005 have been published as INTRODUCTION AND SPREAD OF INVASIVE SPECIES, BCPC Symposium Proceedings no. 81. The 3-day event brought together specialists from research, consulting, and administration to discuss the ramifications of species introduction, both intended and accidental, as well as appropriate methods of grappling with the consequences. A broad international author group presented over 30 papers plus numerous posters ranging across systematic, economic, and philosophic themes. The opening presentation stressed the challenge of invasive alien species in an era of increasing global trade. The event and subsequent 308-page, softbound proceedings are aimed at heightening awareness of invasive species impact as well as exploring effective management strategies. *-> BCPC Publication Sales, 7 Omni Business Centre, Omega Park, Alton, Hampshire GU34 2QD, UK. publications@bcpc.org. Fax: 44-0-1420-593-209. Phone: 44-0-1420-593-200. Web: www.bcpc.org WEB, PUBLICATION, CD, AND VIDEO NOTES


CropLife International, the global federation representing the plant science industry, recently published COMPLIANCE MANAGEMENT OF CONFINED FIELD TRIALS OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PLANTS, a generic compliance management document intended to be a resource for all who may undertake field trials of genetically modified (GM) crops. The 90-page, highly detailed and informative document covers topics from pre-trial considerations to the intricate mechanics of transporting, storing, planting, and harvesting experimental GM crops. Step-by-step procedures are set forth and the attractively presented text is replete with suggested forms related to recording and substantiating nearly every imaginable detail of the trials exercise. The complete 2005 document can be freely downloaded from www.croplife.org (at page, at far right, under "To find out more" click on "publications"). *-> C. Gill, CropLife International, Ave. Louise 143, 1050 Brussels, BELGIUM. Carolyn@croplife.com. Fax: 32-2-547-0419. Phone: 32-2-541-1662.


Organizers of the September 2005 2nd International Symposium on the Biological Control of Arthropods" (ISBCA) convened in Davos, SWITZERLAND, have announced production of a softbound, 2-volume, 734-page proceedings containing articles, with color illustrations, by the event's invited speakers. Additionally a CD-ROM of these papers also includes abstracts from over 100 poster presentations. Copies of both the printed proceedings and CD are said to be available free. *-> R.C. Reardon, RReardon@fs.fed.us. Phone: 1-304-285-1566. thanks to M.S. Hoddle for information.


The CRC (collaborative research centre) for Australian Weed Management hosts the informative website for the Australian national Glyphosate Sustainability Working Group (GSWG), a collaborative effort involving research, industry, and extension representatives focused on fostering the sustainable use of glyphosatic herbicides in Australian agriculture. Among the useful items on the site www.weeds.crc.org.au are: a Guide to minimizing the risk of glyphosate resistance; FAQ's (frequently asked questions) on glyphosate resistance; what to do if one suspects glyphosate resistance; and the Australian glyphosate resistance register. The group seeks to increase glyphosate sustainability through "development and delivery of clear and consistent information, based on industry consensus," as well as increase collaboration by all involved with the issue. *-> R. Llewellyn, WAHRI, Univ. of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy., Crawley, WA 6009, AUSTRALIA. Rick.Llewellyn@uwa.edu.au. Fax: 61-8-6488-1098. Phone: 61-8-6488-3419. thanks to WAHRI's "Herbicide Resistance Matters," Spring 2005, for information.


A new information aid, BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENTS FOR WEEDS IN NEW ZEALAND, A FIELD GUIDE, explains how to find and recognize biocontrol agents deliberately and successfully introduced to NEW ZEALAND to attack and help manage weeds in the island nation. The 2005 publication also covers the most significant of the self-introduced and native species commonly impacting weed plants. The Guide was specifically designed with a compact format and durable material ideal for in-field use. Contents alert users to some of the species frequently confused with biocontrol agents. Tips on how to best enhance agent coverage are also included. *-> L. Hayes, Landcare Research, PO Box 69, Lincoln 8152, NEW ZEALAND. HayesL@landcareresearch.co.nz. Fax: 64-9-574-4101. Phone: 64-03-325-6701, ext. 3808. excerpted, with thanks, from WHAT'S NEW IN BIOCONTROL OF

WEEDS, 33, August 2005. @


The International Society of Plant Pathology invites interested parties to participate in an online Plant Pathology Teaching Symposium from 15 May-04 June, 2006. The event, "Active Learning in Plant Pathology," will consist of submitted papers and forums. Topics will include: What should every plant pathologist be taught? Challenges in teaching plant pathology and how to meet them; and, Practical work. How much can "virtual" replace "actual," pros and cons. More details and contacts are at: www.ispp *-> ISPP, info@ispp-teaching-symposium.org.


A U.S. entomologist and IPM advocate has prepared a 4-page "white paper" addressing concerns that insects might eventually develop resistance to the natural bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis that has now become one of the staples in genetically modifying crop plants to help reduce the use of potentially toxic insecticides. In his concise document, "What is Bt and What is the Risk of Insects Becoming Resistant to Bt Transgenic Plants?," A.M. Shelton uses a question and answer format to discuss and provide information about this important and timely topic including the use of Bt foliar sprays. The straightforward style of the text offers clear information and serves as a useful and timely summary of the subject. *-> A.M. Shelton, 416 Barton Lab, NYSAES, Geneva, NY 14456, USA. ams5@cornell.edu. Fax: 1-315-787-2326.


C.D. Huebner, et al, have prepared a U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service document, INVASIVE PLANTS FIELD AND REFERENCE GUIDE: AN ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF PLANT INVADERS OF FORESTS AND WOODLANDS. The intent was to compile a referenced source for information about the behavior of key plant invaders (in the U.S.) in managed, disturbed, and pristine forested systems. The 2004 work examines 15 main species in four plant categories and presents extensive information about each plus, in a separate section, citations for numerous supporting references. Full color photos appear throughout. The publication is NA-TP-05-04; it can be freely downloaded from: www.na.fs.fed.us *-> C.D. Huebner, USDA FS, Northeastern Research Station, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA. CHuebner@fs.fed.us.



Rome, ITALY * Under overall supervision take responsibility for the operation of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues; prepare, organize, and conduct panel meetings; write, edit, and publish reports, evaluations, and technical materials; develop and advise regarding strategies, policies, technical requirements, methods, and guidelines related to pesticides; design and conduct analytical studies; participate in activities related to the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides. * REQUIRES: university advanced degree in crop protection, plant science, or pesticide chemistry; 7 years of relevant experience; working knowledge of English, French, or Spanish and limited knowledge of one of the other two. Position no. 1452-AGP, P-4 level. CONTACT: V.A 1452-AGP, Chief, Plant Protection Service, FAO, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, ITALY. AGPP-Chief@fao.org. Fax: 39-06-570-56347. Web: www.fao.org


Davis, CA, USA * Coordinate activities, conduct train-the-trainer programs, and deliver IPM information to urban audiences statewide; collaborate with research personnel in developing educational programs and materials; function as an integral member of a statewide IPM program's urban IPM outreach and education thrust. * REQUIRES: formal education in a pest, pest management, or horticulture related discipline; demonstrated working knowledge of pests, pest management, pesticides and related environmental impacts; excellent writing, editing, and oral presentation skills; advanced interpersonal skills in networking with a wide range of lay clients and professionals; well honed computer skills including desktop publishing; ability to establish goals, identify priorities, and work independently. Position: VL# 2868. For additional detail and application procedure, see vacancy announcement at: jobs.hr.ucdavis.edu *-> Human Resources, Admin. Bldg., Univ. of California, Orchard Park, Davis, CA 95616, USA. IMDay@ucdavis.edu. Fax: 1-530-754-6163. thanks to M.L. Flint for information. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, & SERVICES


A slate of online short-courses built on the premise of fostering sustainable development includes "Fundamentals of Integrated Pest Management," designed to provide participants with an expanded understanding and appreciation of IPM, its application and potential benefits.

The 6-week course covers four modules, each of which requires a combination of self-study, interaction with fellow participants and course facilitators, and submission of required assignments. A table at the website www.sdlearn.net provides a week by week chronicle of the modules and their objectives.

The IPM course, one of several topics offered, is organized and presented by SDLEARN.NET (Sustainable Development eLearning Network), a not-for-profit organization with roots in earlier online education initiatives. The network is structured as a support mechanism so its members can provide cost effective online courses, and was established to, among several goals, "promote sustainable development through the dissemination of impartial science-based knowledge." *-> SDLEARN.NET, Unit 5D, 39 Soi Sailom 2, Phaholyothin Rd., Samsennai, Phayathai, Bangkok 10400, THAILAND. info@sdlearn.net. Phone/Fax: 66-2-616-9869. thanks to R. Rabb for information.
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IPM RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS --- categories and topics related to IPM


IPM in Latin America

Following an introduction to IPM and a description of issues in IPM, such as some of its elements' complexity, Chilean scientists L.C. Rodriguez and H.M. Niemeyer expand on IPM development and adoption in Latin America. In their article "Integrated Pest Management, Semiochemicals and Microbial Pest-control Agents in Latin American Agriculture," the authors address a paucity of funding for research as well as entrenched agricultural practices as impediments to adopting a full palette of IPM tactics. In contrast, IPM practices "that promote practical, realistic, economic, and achievable solutions" they conclude, have a higher probability of adoption and success while also providing an avenue for redirecting costly, long-term research to other endeavors. *-> H.M. Niemeyer, Niemeyer@abulafia.ciencias.uchile.cl. excerpted with thanks from CROP PROTECTION, 24(7), July 2005. THIS MONTH'S SELECTED TITLES

Phytopathology "Effects of Climate and Land Use on the Occurrence of Viruliferous Aphids and the Epidemiology of Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease," Fabre, F., et al. * AGRIC., ECOSYS., & ENVIRON., 106(1), 49-55, March 2005.

"Winter Wheat Cultivar Responses to Fungicide Application are Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization Rate," Varga, B., et al. * JRNL. OF AGRON. AND CROP SCI., 191(2), 130-137, April 2005.

Weed Science

"Can an Integrated Management Approach Provide a Basis for Long-term Prevention of Weed Dominance in Australian Pasture Systems?," Huwer, R.K., et al. * WEED RESCH., 45(3), 175-192, June 2005.

"Striga ControlTechnologies and their Dissemination," Oswald, A. * CROP PROT., 24(4), 333-342, April 2005.


"Comparison of Predator and Pest Communities in Washington Potato Fields Treated with Broad-spectrum, Selective, or Organic Insecticides," Koss, A.M., et al. * ENVIRON. ENTOM. 34(1), 87-95, February 2005.

"Effect on Crop Rotation Distance on Populations of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Development of Areawide Colorado Potato Beetle Pest Management Strategies," Sexson, D.L., and J.A. Wyman. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 98(3), 716-724, June 2005.

Bt Sub-section

"Regional Reversion of Insecticide Resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is Associated with the Use of Bt Cotton in Northern China," Wu, K., et al. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 61(5), 491-498, May 2005. Nematology "Strong Bottom-up and Weak Top-down Effects in Soil: Nematode- parasitized Insects and Nematode-trapping Fungi," Jaffee, B.A., and D.R. Strong. * SOIL BIOL. AND BIOCHEM., 37(6), 1011-1021, June 2005.

Vertebrate Management

"Integrated Management to Reduce Rodent Damage to Lowland Rice Crops in Indonesia," Singleton, G.R., et al. * AGRIC., ECOSYST. AND ENVIRON., 107(1), 75-82, May 2005.


"Mulches Reduce Aphid-borne Viruses and Whiteflies in Cantaloupe," Summers, C.G., et al. * CALIF. AGRIC., 59(2), 90-94, April-June 2005.

"Stable Coexistence of an Invasive Plant and Biocontrol Agent: A Parameterized Coupled Plant-Herbivore Model," Buckley, Y.M., et al. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ECOL., 42(1), 70-79, February 2005.
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Potato Disease Site Gets Makeover

A reorganization and expansion of the Michigan Potato Diseases website www.potatodiseases.org has made this informative resource even richer with an impact and relevance beyond providing "Michigan potato growers with reliable and up-to-date information on the identity, biology and disease-cycle, and current control method for diseases of potatoes," as envisioned by the authors.

Plant pathologists at Michigan State Univ. have grouped subsidiary web links for both foliar and tuber diseases on the expanded, easily navigated main site as well as segregating extension publications (available for download) and research articles (most with abstracts) under their own headings. Disease prediction models are available on a linked website. A frequently updated section covers current news and other alerts.

*-> P.S. Wharton, 330 Plant and Soil Sci., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824-1325, USA. WhartonP@msu.edu. Phone: 1-517-355-7539. thanks to Agnet (June 27/05-II) for information. Disease Image Collections

Two recently created plant pest and disease image galleries present a wealth of predominantly visual (full color) and text information. The Coffee Pest and Disease Image Gallery www2.hawaii.edu contains more than 130 images while the Kava Pest and Disease Image Gallery www2.hawaii.edu offers over 100 digital photos of pest organisms and diseases.

Both galleries were prepared as quick reference sources for growers in the U.S. state of Hawaii to help in diagnosing disease problems. *-> S.C. Nelson, Komohana Resch. & Extension Ctr., Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, 875 Komohana St., Hilo, HI 96720, USA. SNelson@hawaii.edu. Fax: 1-808-981-5211. Phone: 1-808-981-5207. thanks to J. Wright for information.
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U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP)

IPM Program Awards 12 Grants

An international research program recently awarded 12 four-year grants totaling more than US million to seven U.S. universities as funding for a slate of collaborative IPM research proposals addressing a variety of pest management elements in developing nations on several continents.

Ranging from an effort to create a 5-nation west African consortium of IPM excellence, to a program to improve management of the weed Parthenium hysterophorus, and a plan to increase laboratory capacity for plant disease diagnosis, the 12 grants fall under broad headings of either global theme or regional intervention.

The awards are the core of the U.S. Agency for International Development-funded Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM-CRSP) administered by Virginia Tech University (VT). The IPM-CRSP completed two earlier 5-year programs, both administered at VT. Winning proposals for grants were selected by an independent evaluation review panel comprised of experts on developing country issues, according to sources at VT's office of international agriculture.

Of the 12 selected proposals, five were submitted by staff at VT. Universities in the eastern U.S. were the preponderant grant winners as only one university in the western half of the U.S. was chosen for an award. The 12 selected projects are expected to launch activities immediately.

NOTE: more detailed profiles of the grant winning proposals are planned for inclusion in future IPMnet NEWS issues.

*-> IPM CRSP, 1060 L. Reaves Hall, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, VA 24061-0334, USA. Fax: 1-540-231-3519. Phone: 1-540-231-3513. ipm-dir@vt.edu. Web: www.ag.vt.edu thanks to M. Rich for information.
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IPMNET CALENDAR --- recent additions and revisions to a comprehensive global

(N)ew or [R]evised Entries to the IPMnet CALENDAR

2005 07-20 December * INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON THE PROMOTION OF METHYL BROMIDE ALTERNATIVES TO COMPLY WITH ITS PHASE OUT, Bet Dagan, ISRAEL. Contact: S. Parson, ARO/CINADCO, PO Box 30, Bet Dagan 50250, ISRAEL. SigalP@moag.gov.il. Fax: 72-3-948-5771.


(N) 13-15 March * 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NON CHEMICAL PROTECTION METHODS, Lille, FRANCE. Contact: AFPP, 6, Blvd. de la Bastille, 75012 Paris, FRANCE. Web: www.afpp.net

(N) 27-29 April * IOBC, BREEDING FOR INDUCIBLE RESISTANCE AGAINST PESTS AND DISEASES, Heraklio, Crete, GREECE. Contact: N. Birch, N.Birch@scri.sari.ac.uk. Web: www.iobc


(N) 10-14 July * 11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA, Edinburgh, UK. Contact: D. Stead, CSL, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK. icppb2006@csl.gov.uk. Fax: 44-0-1904-462111. Phone: 44-0-1904-462000.

(N) 17-21 July * 4TH INTERNATIONAL BACTERIAL WILT SYMPOSIUM, Sand Hutton, York, UK. Contact: G. Saddler, ibws2006@sasa.gsi.gov.uk.

(N) 23-27 July * 3RD INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON BARLEY LEAF BLIGHTS, Edmonton, AB, CANADA. Contact: D. Orr, Agriculture and Agri- Food Canada, 6000 C & E Trail, Lacombe, AB T4L 1J6, CANADA. Fax: 1-403-782-6120. OrrDD@agr.gc.ca. Phone:1-403-782-8133.

(N) 17-22 September * 8TH EUROPEAN CONGRESS OF ENTOMOLOGY, Izmir, TURKEY. Contact: Topkon Congress Svc., sales@topkon.com. Web: www.ece2006.org.


(N) 18-21 June * 14TH EUROPEAN WEED RESEARCH SOCIETY SYMPOSIUM, Hamar, NORWAY. Contact: P. Barberi, SSSUP, Piazza Martiri della Liberta 33, IT-56127 Pisa, ITALY. Fax: 39-050-883-215. Barberi@sssup.it. Phone: 39-050-883-449. Web: www.ewrs.org.

(N) October * 21ST ASIAN PACIFIC WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY CONFERENCE, Colombo, SRI LANKA. Contact: B. Marambe, BMarambe@pdn.ac.lk.


No (N) ew or [R]evised listings to report for these years.

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