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IPMnet NEWS


January 2009, Issue no. 168
ISSN: 1523-7893 © Copyright 2005


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I. IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs


EU Stirs Up the Pesticide Approval Stew
The simmering pesticide regulation pot has reached a rolling boil with the 13 January 2009 votes in the European Parliament to significantly tighten registration and future use and presence of certain pesticides in the EU community, a move seen to have widespread impact within the EU and beyond, according to numerous sources.

A Europa/RAPID news release reports that the agreed upon regulation replaces an existing framework, and covers authorization, use, and control of “plant protection products” [no doubt meaning ‘crop’ protection products as it’s doubtful farmers will apply products to enhance weed growth. Ed.]. The products cited fall into the groups of the various synthetically produced “chemical” ‘cides’ that contain “active substances.”

To be approved in the future, each active substance will have to be proven safe in terms of health, including residues in the food chain, animal health, and the environment. EU member states will be constrained to authorize only those products containing approved active material. Non-chemical biological control agents, including some highly virulent materials and potentially toxic naturally occurring products utilized in organic farming, apparently do not fall within the EU’s plan.

The regulations receiving a thumbs up from the EU Parliament next go before the Council of Ministers where adoption is said to be a formality, and then enter a process for determining actual implementation which is expected to be much more contentious and drawn-out exercise. It is at this step that the battle between “hazard-based” and “risk-based” approaches is anticipated to erupt in full fury.

The aspect of applying and enforcing EU pesticide restrictions to crops grown outside, and imported to, the EU is far from clear as some of the pesticides likely to be excluded from the EU’s approval list leave no detectable residues in the produce.

In the realm of further possibly unforseen consequences, 160 scientists and malaria experts from around the world have signed a petition urging the EU to re-think the legislation which is likely to ban agricultural products from which effective malaria control insecticides are derived, essentially ending production of the latter. A noted specialist on vector-born diseases commented that “the health of millions who sufferand diefrom malaria and other insect-born diseases in less developed countries will be seriously compromised if invaluable insecticides are banned from the market.”

Other observers are less pessimistic believing that when more of the ramifications and outcomes are scientifically assessed, the results will be less restrictive and damaging than currently anticipated in some quarters. Some staunchly protected products may have their day in court, if statements from agricultural elements hold true. Clearly, the last volley has yet to be fired before policies are fully cooked into iron-clad regulations. information excerpted, with thanks, from a variety of sources.

Grazing Linked to Disease Spread
Results of a long-term experiment showcase the interconnectedness of pest management by implicating grazing animals, “consumers,” as indirectly aiding the spread of virulent plant disease.

Researchers discovered that, contrary to common theory, grazing by species such as deer and rabbits, while not directly spreading pathogensin this case, barley and cereal yellow dwarf virusesreduced desirable plant species and thereby encouraged invasive growth of annual grasses preferred by the aphids that spread the pathogens.

In their paper, “Consumers Indirectly Increase Infection Risk in Grassland Food Webs,” E.T. Borer,et al compared the effects of grazing against non-grazing and found that virus prevalence increased from 5 percent to 18 percent, a 3.6 fold increase, in grazed areas.

The findings, reported in PNAS, 106(2), 503-506, 13 January 2009, point to the complexity of natural ecosystems and the potentials for plants, animals, and pathogens to interact and impact one and other and the ecosystem.

The researchers concluded that, “Even in complex natural communities, alterations to food web composition such as consumer invasion or extinction can lead to significant impacts that cascade through entire communities, including changes in infection risk.” -> E.T. Borer, Zool. Dept., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Fax: 1-541-737-0501. Borer@science.oregonstate.edu. Voice: 1-541-737-3701. excerpted, with thanks, from an Eureka Alert publication news release prepared by D.D. Stauth.

*GLOBAL IPM NOTES*

* Certain combinations of Malus spp. (apple) tree leaf surface metabolites can influence resistance toCydia pomonella(codling moth) egg laying. -> S. Derridj, Derridj@versailles.inra.fr.

* Results of a 2-year field study in NIGERIA showed that unweeded upland rice produced 50 percent less than most rice plots weeded once or twice. -> F. Ekeleme, F.Ekeleme@cgiar.org.

* Compost based on plant residue plus manure reduced disease caused by Clavibact michiganenseby between 79 and 100 percent during studies in ISRAEL. -> M. Raviv, MRaviv@volcani.agri.gov.il.

* A research team is studyingTriticum aestivum(wheat) plants to identify a gene(s) responsible for triggering the plant’s resistance toAphididaeattack. -> C.M. Smith, CMSmith@ksu.edu.

* An international scientist group deems it unlikely that any plant- pathogenic bacterium realistically is a potential biological or bioterror weapon. -> J.M. Young, YoungJ@landcareresearch.co.nz.

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II. IPM-RELATED RESOURCES web, CD/DVD, video and short
publications



* IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about websites, publications, CD/DVDs, or videos focused on, or related to, crop or amenity plant IPM. Please send a review copy of the material to the address at end of this file; or, send the URL to: IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu.

{$} = indicates a publication can be purchased, or that there may be charges for handling and postage, or both. WEED BIOCONTROL AGENTS ILLUSTRATED

The weed biocontrol program in NEW ZEALAND recently published a highly informative map-style fold out pamphlet, “Biocontrol Agents for Weeds in New Zealand, A Quick Reference.” Printed in full color on coated paperstock, the 24-panel, 2008 publication not only illustrates all the weed biocontrol agents currently available in NEW ZEALAND, but includes concise sections on “What is Biocontrol and How Does it Work,” “What to Expect,” and “Future Agents.” Each of the nearly 60 species is shown in a clear, close-up photo along with the weed plant it attacks and a brief description of how it has performed. The pamphlet, designed to fit in a pocket when folded, is among the most effective and comprehensive information tools currently available for weed biocontrol and clearly has far broader application than just NEW ZEALAND. -> L. Hayes, Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln 7640, NEW ZEALAND. Fax: 64-03-321-9998. HayesL@landcareresearch.co.nz. Voice: 64-03-321-9694. MYCORRHIZAE AND PEST MANAGEMENT

One chapter, among eight, in the 2007 hardbound volume, MYCORRHIZAE IN CROP PRODUCTION, edited by C. Hamel and C. Plenchette, addresses the “Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Plant Diseases and Pests.” Chapter authors M. St-Arnaud and V. Vujanovic believe that “naturally occurring rhizosphere microorganisms are choice candidates for biological control because they are already part of equilibrium between plants, pathogens, and the soil environment” and that “AM fungal agents must be seriously considered and examined as alternatives to chemical pesticides.” The extensive list of references included can serve as a valuable information tool. -> Haworth Press, 10 Alice St., Binghampton, NY 13904-1580, USA. Orders@HaworthPress.com. –excerpted, with thanks, from the cited publication. USING PESTICIDES CORRECTLY

The Univ. Of California now offers free copies of the 2008, 7-page title PESTICIDAS: USO SEGURO Y EFICAZ EN EL HOGAR Y EN JARDINES, by C.A. Wilen. Content is described as, “Los pesticidas son toxicos para las plagas que se busca controlar cuando se usan correctamente. Pero si no se siguen las instruciones de la etiqueta correctamente, puede danir a las plantas y la salud humana, y contaminar el suelo, aire o agua. Copies can be freely downloaded or accessed as a webpage (html or PDF) from tinyurl.com –excerpted, with thanks, from the Univ. Of California’s ANR Catalog.


III. IPM-RELATED PUBLICATIONS books, other longer publications


* IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention publications focused on, or related to, crop or amenity plant IPM, or invasives. To facilitate review please send a copy of the publication, along with full details, to IPMnet NEWS (address at end of this file). many thanks, Ed. ....................... {$} = indicates a publication can be purchased, or that there may be charges for handling and postage, or bot

INSECT RESISTANCE DISSECTED A widely known and expanding problem hinges on insect and other pest species developing resistance to not only pesticides, but to pathogens and crop rotation schemes as well. A 2007 monograph, INSECT RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT, tackles the challenge of summarizing the three major elements involved: biology, economics, and prediction. Editor D.W. Onstad and a group of experts illustrate how insect resistance management (IRM), the scientific approach to preventing or delaying pest evolution and resistance development, meshes with an IPM program and, according to a synopsis of the book, can become efficient, effective, and socially acceptable. The 315-page, hardbound work discusses a broad swath of elements impacting IRM, plus case studies, and then offers important conclusions and advice. In his concluding chapter, Dr. Onstad sums up the 13 preceding chapters and presents his 10 recommended guidelines for managing insect resistance. {$} -> Academic Press/Elsevier, see: tinyurl.com

BATTLING AN AQUATIC THREAT A liberally illustrated, information packed 2006 publication profiles one of the universally acclaimed worst fresh water aquatic weeds. SALVINIA CONTROL MANUAL, “Management and Control for Salvinia (_Salvinia molesta_) in Australia,” introduces this free-floating, mat-forming aquatic fern, details its physical characteristics and capacity for growth and waterway blockage, and delves into control/management matters. Authored by E. van Oosterhout, this 79-page work utilizes dozens of color photos, a clearly written text, and an attractive graphic presentation to effectively deliver useful information for any entity, not only in Australia, that may be plagued byS. molesta The manual was published by the New South Wales Dept. of Primary Industries within the Australian “Weeds of National Significance” program, and can be freely downloaded from tinyurl.com or ordered in hardcopy form from: bookshop@dpi.nsw.gov.au.

PROFILE OF THEPhytophthoraGENUS For plant pathologists, or anyone concerned with the genusPhytophthora a new volume, PHYTOPHTHORA, “Identifying Species by Morphology and DNA Fingerprints,” could be a useful reference. The 2008 publication presents data for about 60 species out of the nearly 100 species in the genusPhytophthorathat have been reported. Many are plant pathogens of considerable economic importance. Using literally dozens of black/white photos, authors M.E. Gallegly and C. Hong graphically reveal physiological details and specie differences that help key identification. The 168-page, softbound publication is spiral bound so as to lay flat and promote easier reference. [_Phytophthora(from the Greek phyton, ”plant” and phthora, “destruction,” or “the plant destroyer.” –from Wikipedia, with thanks.] {$} -> APS Press. 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121, USA. Phone: 1-651-454-7250. aps@scisoc.org. www.shopapspress.org. Fax: 1-651-454-0766.

MAKING BIOCONTROL SPECIES WELCOME Extension entomologist E.W. Hodgson has put together a compactly sized publication that carries a fundamental IPM-based message: attracting and utilizing beneficial species as biocontrol agents is usually well worth the effort and cost. While GARDENING WITH GOOD BUGS is slanted toward a generally non-technical audience, the softbound volume’s 111-page information is broadly applicable. Nearly 40 clear, full color photos illustrate key biocontrol species while the accompanying text is spare and uncluttered. Chapters set the stage, discuss the importance of IPM concepts, enumerate common garden pests (temperate climate), and then introduce many common insect parasitoids and predators. The attractive 2008 work’s philosophy is, according to Dr. Hodgson, that “good bugs are a gardener’s best friends.” {$} -> E. Hodgson, Dept. Of Biol., Utah State Univ., Logan, UT 84322-5305, USA. Erin.Hodgson@usu.edu.

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IV. IPM MEDLEY Professional Opportunities Equipment, Products, Processes, & Services

*PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES* SECRETARY, Commission on Phytosanitary Measures of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), FAO, Rome ITALY * Take responsibility for all aspects of administering the IPPC; formulate and implement strategic plans; promote IPPC and its aims; manage a range of information dissemination activities; serve as IPPC spokesperson in all situations. * REQUIRES: Advanced degree in natural sciences or agriculture with specialization in a discipline related to crop protection; broad scope of demonstrated managerial competencies; working knowledge of English and limited knowledge of one of FAO’s other languages. * See: www.fao.org CONTACT: Director, Human Resources Mgmt., FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153, Rome, ITALY. Senior-vacancies@fao.org. AGRICULTURAL OFFICER (Standards) Commission on Phytosanitary Measures of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), FAO, Rome ITALY * Help develop international phytosanitary measures; manage projects, prepare and present information; develop, edit and proofread a range of technical documents (English); assist with IPPC capacity building; engage in liaison with various organizations. * REQUIRES: Degree in plant science, biology, or related field relevant to phytosanitary standards; five years of relevant experience; experience organizing large scale international meetings; demonstrated ability to develop and effectively edit technical documents; working knowledge of English, French, or Spanish and limited knowledge of one of the other two. Vacancy announcement no: 2122-AGP. See: www.fao.org Contact: VA 2122-AGP, IPPC Secretariat, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153, Rome, ITALY. VA-2122-AGP@fao.org. –thanks to M.L. Bateman for information on both positions.

*EQUIPMENT, PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, & SERVICES* FUSARIUM RESISTANT VARIETIES SOUGHT

A request from Northern Territories, AUSTRALIA, wonders whether anyone is aware of varieties or local lines ofVigna unguiculatassp.Sesquipedalis(snake bean), especially those grown in lowland tropical locations, that are known (or suspected) to be fusarium resistant. Fusarium wilt is causing crop losses and the existing method of grafting desirable snake bean varieties ontoV. unguiculata(cowpea) root stock, while effective, is said to be highly time consuming. -> P.G. Harrison, office@abovecapricorn.com.au.

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V. IPM-RELATED RESEARCH/TECHNICAL PAPERS

*SELECTED TITLES*

Selections from current literature. IPMnet NEWS will gladly provide the address and email, as available, for first authors of the following titles. Direct requests to: IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu.

Phytopathology """""""""""""" "Effect of Fungicide Seed Treatments on Stand Establishment, Seedling Disease, and Yield of Soybean in North Dakota," Bradley, C.A. * PLANT DIS., 92(1), 120-125, January 2008.

"A Host-pathogen Simulation Model: Powdery Mildew of Grapevine," Calonnec, A.,et al * PLANT PATH., 57(3), 493-508, June 2008.

Weed Science """""""""""" "Mustard (_Sinapis alba_) Seed Meal Suppresses Weeds in Container- grown Ornamentals," Boydston, R.A.,et al * HORTSCI., 43(3), 800-803, June 2008.

“Weed Research: Is it Delivering What it Should?," Moss, S.R. * WEED RSCH., 48(5), 389-393, October 2008.

Entomology """""""""" "Effect of some Biorational Insecticides onSpodoptera eridaniain Organic Cabbage," Michereff-Filho, M.,et al * PEST MGMT. SCI., 64(7), 761-767, July 2008.

"Pheromone-based Pest Management Can be Cost-effective for Walnut Growers," Steinmann, K.P.,et al * CALIF. AGRIC., 62(3), 105-110, July-September 2008.

Transgenics """"""""""" “Agro-environmental Effects Due to Altered Cultivation Practices with Genetically Modified-tolerant Oilseed Rape and Implications for Monitoring: A Review,” Graef, F. * AGRON. FOR SUST. DEVEL., 29(1), 31-42, January-March 2009.

“Second-generation Bt Cotton Field Trials in Burkina Faso: Analyzing the Potential Benefits to West African Farmers,” Vitale, J.,et al * CROP SCI., 48(5), 1958-1966, September-October 2008.

General """"""" "An Assessment of Agricultural Producers' Attitudes and Practices Concerning Pesticide Spray Drift: Implications for Extension Education," Blaine, T.W.,et al * JRNL. OF EXTEN., 46(4), art.#4COM2, August 2008. www.joe.org Environmental Accounting: A Method for Assessing the External Costs of Individual Pesticide Applications,” Leach, A.W., and J.D. Mumford. * ENVIRON. POLLUTION, 151(1), 139-147, January 2008.

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VI. U.S. REGIONAL IPM CENTERS news, developments, programs

All About the Potato Beetle
An applied entomologist has created an informative website exclusively focused on the pest insectLeptinotarsa decemlineata(Colorado potato beetle). At potatobeetle.org A. Alyokhin offers a resource including a searchable bibliography, plus sections concerning cultural, physical, biological, and chemical control as well as a discussion of the beetle’s evolving resistance to insecticides and a short summarization of IPM andL. decemlineata In the latter, Dr. Alyokhin observes that “the secret of the Colorado potato beetle’s success as a pest is its diverse and flexible life history coupled with a remarkable adaptability,” while noting that integration of multiple control techniques is “the only sustainable way to manage this insect.” Aside from the hard information presented, the site offers a lighter side in a “Memorabilia” section reflecting postage stamps, post cards, and an impressive array of colorful posters all tied (some loosely) to the potato beetle. -> A. Alyokhin, School of Biol. And Ecol., 315 Deering Hall, Univ. Of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA. Aloyokhin@potatobeetle.org. Fax: 1-207-581-2537. Voice: 1-207-581-2977. –excerpted, with thanks, from the potato beetle website.

New York IPM Program Report
The active New York State IPM program has published The Year in Review, 2007-2008, a summary of its programs and activities. The glossy, full color, brochure presents highlights of the year’s work, introduces the 25-person staff, and discusses several projects in depth. Increased usage of the internet (see: www.nysipm.cornell.edu is effectively supplementing traditional information dissemination vehicles such as field days and face-to-face meetings, the report notes. Text, written in breezy, pop-style, accompanies numerous full color photos. “Pie” charts reveal how funding was allocated. -> NYS IPM Program, NYAES, 630 W. North St., Geneva, NY 14456, USA.

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VII. U.S. AID's IPM-COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM (IPM-CRSP) news, developments

IPM-CRSP Awarded African Grant
The U.S. Agency for International development has awarded a million associate grant to the IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM-CRSP) to expand its activities in Africa in connection with the African Food Security Initiative (AFSI), according to an IPM-CRSP news release.

The program, drawing on its 15-year experience in sub-Saharan Africa, will assist AFSI to strengthen crop pest diagnostic labs, as well as increase the pool of trained specialists in crop health and inspection to ensure that crops exported from the continent meet international phytosanitary standards. (Which may be shifting: see “News,” above.)

Additionally, the program will extend science-based food crop production methods aimed at increasing yields and reducing losses attributable to pest species (weeds, insects, pathogens).

The award, granted to Virginia Tech on behalf of the IPM-CRSP, assures collaboration with other African and U.S. organizations in assisting AFSI with its dual aims of a.) boosting production of staple food and small-scale grower cash crops such as tomato, rice, and maize, plus b.) addressing trade restraints and food security concerns.

-> IPM-CRSP Director, IAO, 526 Prices Fork Rd. (0378), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Fax: 1-540-231-3519. Voice: 1-540-231-3516. IPM-dir@vt.edu. tinyurl.com excerpted, with thanks, from an IPM-CRSP news release; thanks also to M. Rich and R. Muniappan.

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VIII. IPMnet CALENDARUPDATE recent *additions* and *revisions* (only) to a global listing of forthcoming IPM-related events, 2008-2013.

NOTES:

1=> The IPMnet CALENDARUpdate, lists only: (N)ew events not previously cited in IPMnet NEWS; and, [R]evised events incorporating new information compared to a previous mention in IPMnet NEWS.

2=> The IPMnet CALENDAR, Latest Complete Version, can be requested any time from IPMnet at IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. It is also available online at www.pestinfo.org courtesy of the International Society for Pest Information (ISPI) and B. Zelazny, ISPI's executive director. The site is designed with features intended for the convenience of users. The "IPMnet CALENDARUpdate" appears in each IPMnet NEWS issue.

3=> Please send information about future events, or revisions, to: IPMnet NEWS, at IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. Information listed in the IPMnet CALENDAR was supplied by, and collected from, various sources; IPMnet greatly appreciates all cooperation.

(N)ewly Listed, or [R]evised Entries: as of 15 January 200


2009

[R] 08-13 February * new information * 3RD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPODS, "Maximizing Success while Minimizing Risk," Christchurch, NEW ZEALAND. Contact: S. Russell, Prof. Devel. Group, PO Box 84, Lincoln Univ., Canterbury, NEW ZEALAND. Russels4@lincoln.ac.nz. Voice: 64-3-325-8955. Fax: 64-3-325-3685. www.isbca09.com.

10-14 February * AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND BIOCONTROL CONFERENCE, Sydney, NSW, AUSTRALIA. Contact: S. Brown, Conf. Connections, PO Box 108, Kenmore, QLD 4069, AUSTRALIA. Fax: 64-7-3201-2809. Voice: 64-7-3201-2808. Sally.Brown@uq.net.au. www.anzbc2008.org.

23-25 March * 55TH ANNUAL SOIL FUNGUS CONFERENCE and 41ST CALIFORNIA NEMATOLOGY WORKSHOP, Salinas, CA, USA. Contact: S.T. Koike, STKoike@ucdavis.edu. soilfungus.ars.usda.gov.

23-26 March * WESTERN FOREST INSECT WORK CONFERENCE, “Some Like it Hot! Insects, Fire, & Climate Change in Western Forests,” Spokane, WA, USA. See: www.fsl.orst.edu 19-23 April * 16TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES, Montreal, QUE, CANADA. Contact: ICAIS, 1027 Pembroke St. East, Suite 200, Pembroke, ON K8A 3M4, CANADA. Fax: 1-613-732-3386. Elizabeth@theprofessionaledge.com. Voice: 1-613-732-7068. www.icais.org.

03-05 June * 2ND JORNADAS DE ENFERMEDADES Y PLAGAS EN CULTIVOS BAJO CUBIERTA (2ND SYMPOSIUM ON PESTS AND DISEASES IN PROTECTED CROPS), La Plata, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA. Contact: Secretariate, enfermedadesbajocubierta@yahoo.com. Fax: 54-221-425-2346. Voice: 54-221-423-6758 (code 423).

(N) 15-20 June * ENDURE’S 2ND INTERNATIONAL SUMMER SCHOOL FOR PhD STUDENTS, “Modeling Approaches to Support IPM,” Volterra, ITALY. Applications due by 15 February 09 (15 positions available). * Contact: endure.summerschool@sssup.it. Also, see: www.endure

08-12 June * new website * 10TH WORLD CONGRESS ON PARASITIC PLANTS, Kusadasi, TURKEY. Contact: A. Uludag, secretary@ippsturkey.com. www.dalyatur.com ?? September * IOBC/WPRS STUDY GROUP, “Benefits and Risks of Biological Control,” SWITZERLAND. Contact: M. Kenis, Delemont, SWITZERLAND. M.Kenis@cabi.org.

(N) 30 September - 03 October * IOBC/WPRS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, MOROCCO. Contact: P. Nicot, Philippe.Nicot@avignon.inra.fr.

(N) 09-11 December * 2009 SOYBEAN RUST SYMPOSIUM, New Orleans, LA, USA. See: www.apsnet.org

2010-2013

No (N)ew or [R]evised listings to report for these years.

.................................................................

* About IPMnet * IPMnet is a free, global, IPM information resource service produced in collaboration with the Integrated Plant Protection Center at Oregon State Univ., USA, www.ipmnet.org and underwritten by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service, www.csrees.usda.gov and the U.S. Agency for International Development's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program tinyurl.com IPMnet maintains working relationships with the International Society for Pest information www.pestinfo.org and the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences www.plantprotection.org.

*IPMnet NEWS* #168, January/February 2009. ISSN: 1523-7893.

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