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October - November 2011, Issue no. 190
ISSN: 1523-7893 © Copyright 2005

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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

I. IPM News

FEMALE GROWERS FIND ADVANTAGES IN GM COTTON Authors of an exploratory pilot study of growers planting genetically modified cotton (GMC) in COLOMBIA employed a participatory and descriptive approach and built in a special effort to include gender considerations that, taken together, yielded intriguing findings about female growers and GMC production in the region.

The study, "Women Cotton Farmers: Their Perceptions and Experiences with Transgenic VarietiesA Case Study for Colombia," was conducted by staff of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and published in September 2011. The study found that GM cotton was especially attractive to female farmers as an avenue for reducing labor costs, particularly those associated with activities traditionally performed by men specifically hired to apply insecticides.

Female farmers, compared to their male counterparts, appeared to place greater value on the peace of mind GM varieties provided in terms of protecting crops against specific pest insects. Women also expressed appreciation for "easier management" of GM crops as well as the significant importance of less time required for attending the crop in view of women's more restricting time demands.

In spite of substantially higher seed costs compared to conventional seed, both female and male growers perceived that GM cotton has clear advantages, even if they do not grow it. Because of their time constraints, women more than men were more receptive to following technical advice for adjusting their practices to accommodate GMC, and broadly view information as key to successfully growing transgenic crops.

In view of the fact that in some regions women spend up to 60 percent of their waking time weeding crops, noted weed scientist J. Gressel, in respect to GM crops, observed that "the best way to empower developing world women is to get them out of weeding and into mainstream lifeincluding schooling and commerce." Prof Gressel also noted that GM crops offer women growers decreased reliance on others, as well as being less time demanding.

The study, authored by P. Zambrano, et al, was conducted in a region of COLOMBIA that has been growing GM cotton commercially since 2003 and has registered a six-fold increase in area devoted to this crop. The study is titled "IFPRI Discussion Paper 01118," and is freely available as a PDF file at: tinyurl.com excerpted, with thanks, from the IFPRI website, and from SciDev Net; thanks also to AgBioWorld's View.

GROUP: RESTORE U.S. FEDERAL IPM FUNDS IPM Voice, a U.S.-based IPM advocacy group, is backing an urgent call for restoration of U.S. Federal IPM program funding to 2010 levels and other actions to help strengthen ongoing, but potentially curtailed, national IPM efforts.

The U.S. federal budget has been reduced for several key national IPM programs led by a Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 budget drop of 34 percent in support for the four U.S. regional IPM Centers, according to an analysis prepared for IPM Voice.

The analysis revealed that, compared to 2010 levels, the overall FY 2012 IPM budget has been reduced 29 percent with most IPM components either fiscally flat or reduced. The study also indicated that IPM research and extension program support had recently declined US million with a potential additional loss of US million pending.

The same study found that since 2000 the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's over-all competitive research budget had increased 36 percent while funding for IPM activity in that budget shrunk over 30 percent. The decreases, noted a recent IPM Voice document, starkly contrast with massive benefits for U.S. growers, such as the IPM-based strategy developed to help protect the extensive U.S. soybean crop from Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus that causes Asian soybean rust.

IPM Voice is also calling for reestablishment of the National IPM Coordinator position to provide an advocate for IPM within the Department and ensure that various programs are coordinated with each other as well as with regional and state activities. -> IPM Voice, L. Presley, 4510 Regent St., Madison, WI 53705, USA. info@ipmvoice.org. Voice: 1-608-232-1410. www.ipmvoice.org. excerpted, with thanks, from IPM Voice materials.


* The “pesticide footprint concept” estimates the total loss of pesticides, and the respective impact on humans and ecosystems, per product unit in a life-cycle framework. -> K. Mueller, Karin.Mueller@plantandfood.co.nz.

* A 17-state study in the USA estimated that two highly competitive weeds, Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) and Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) significantly reduce cattle stocking rates in pastures. -> M.J. Rinella, Matt.Rinella@ars.usda.gov.

* A transgenic Cavendish banana (Musa spp.) showed improved tolerance of Sigatoka leaf spot disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis. -> J. Vishnevetsky, vhlperl@agri.gov.il.

* Aluminum phosphide tablets provided up to 80 percent control of Spermophilus richardsonii (Richardson’s ground squirrel) depending on conditions. -> G. Proulx, GProulx@alphawildlife.ca.

* Trials confirmed that mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial antagonists improve biocontrol of fire blight in certain crops compared to individual biocontrol agents. -> V.O. Stockwell, StockweV@science.oregonstate.edu.

* A single female invasive Salix spp. (willow) tree can produce up to 300,000 seeds per year and influence the ecology of a waterway. -> A. Young, Andrew.Young@csiro.au.

* When pelletized and applied to soil, discarded chicken litter can reduce the damaging effects of soil nematodes on certain crop roots. -> S. Ntamatungiro, NtamatungiroS@uapb.edu.

II. IPM Information Resources > Recently Published Information > Other Published Materials

= RECENTLY PUBLISHED INFORMATION = IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about websites, publications, CD/DVDs, or videos focused on, or related to, crop IPM, crop protection, or invasive species. Please send a review copy of the material to the postal address at end of this file; or, send the URL to: IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. A {$} symbol indicates an item can be purchased, or that there may be charges for handling, postage, or both.


A collaborative federal/state effort (U.S./Colorado) recently introduced idsource , a specialized search tool for identifying the global maze of over 1,400 vetted websites that focus on identification of plant pest insects, diseases, and weeds. The objective is to help users rapidly find trustworthy websites for screening, detecting, and identifying one or more species among the multitude that comprise the plant pest universe. At the website tinyurl.com users can access the massive database by alphabetical order, by specific class of pest, or by key words. An interactive link is listed for each included item (website) for ease of use, along with the name of the originating organization, the site's contents, the nature of the material included (e.g., fact sheets, screening aid, images), individualized notes about the site, and any user reviews to date. This "gateway to pest identification" was and continues to be, as new sites are added, the joint result of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Center for Plant Health Science and Technology Program within the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and staff at Colorado State Univ. (U.S.). The original concept for idsource arose in 2006, and work was first launched at the Centre for Biological Information Technology at AUSTRALIA's Univ. of Queensland. excerpted, with thanks, from idsource materials; thanks also to T.W. Walters for information.


While designed to apply to conditions in NEW ZEALAND, a recently updated (2011), map-fold, full color brochure describes and illustrates Biocontrol Agents for Weeds in New Zealand and has far broader geographic utility. Subtitled, A Quick Reference, this informative and handsome document, printed on coated paperstock to enhance the included illustrations, discusses 73 weed species and the key biocontrol agents attacking them, and also offers a brief text along with close-up color photos in each case. A short introduction reviews "What is Biocontrol and How Does it Work?" as well as "What to Expect," the latter cautioning that "biocontrol agents do not eliminate weeds" because they are unlikely to find and kill every plant, but have potential to "result in smaller, weaker plants" that are more likely to be out competed by other plants. An electronic version can be freely downloaded from tinyurl.com . -> L. Hayes, HayesL@landcareresearch.co.nz. Voice: 64-03-321-9694. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated document.


The Univ. of California recently published Vineyard Pest Identification and Monitoring Cards, a full color 50-card pack describing 27 insects and mites, 8 diseases, 6 beneficial insects, and a variety of other common disorders, weeds, and invertebrate pests. Each pest is identified by a text description and close-up photo; there are 244 photos in all. The laminated cards, prepared by L.G. Varela and W.J. Bentley, are secured by a rivet, and include suggestions for least toxic management options. A Spanish language version will be published in early 2012. Publication No. 3532. {$} See: tinyurl.com excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated website.


The Australian Dept. of Agric., Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF) website at www.daff.gov.au includes a section on Animal & Plant Health that publishes the free periodic email newsletter, Plant Protection News. Topics include a variety of concerns as well as developments such as planning, announcement of available publications, and ongoing program activity. Australia's national and international plant health and protection activities are reported. Previous issues can be found on the same site. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated website.


The International Society for Pest Information (ISPI) maintains a massive global database of names, addresses, and other information for more than 10,600 scientists involved with, or interested in, pest management. The freely searchable database at www.pestinfo.org/scientists.htm lists key information for scientists associated with public, commercial, or private enterprises related to pest management. Currently non-listed individuals are welcome to add their name and information through a form available by clicking a link provided on the site's opening page. Scientists completing the form and submitting information become contributing members of ISPI (a benign commitment with no dues or other formal obligations). ISPI updates the personnel database annually. -> ISPI, Eulerweg 3, D-64347 Griesheim, GERMANY. ispi@pestinfo.org. Voice: 49-6155-760309. excerpted, with thanks, from the ISPI website.


* Though slightly older, Weed Seedbank Dynamics & Integrated Management of Agricultural Weeds by F. Menalled remains a highly useful resource that not only provides a concise description of weed seedbanks, but also discusses management elements. The 4-page document is available as a free download at tinyurl.com or as a hardcopy on request from: MSU Extension Pubs., PO Box 172040, Bozeman, MT 59717-2040, USA.

* Guia de Productios Fitosanitarios 2011, completa y detallada descripcion de los productos fitosanitarios y fertilizantes comercializados en ARGENTINA. 15th Edicion. -> www.casafe.org/guia.php.

* Crop protection related U.S. Agricultural Research Service articles appearing in recent (2011) issues of Agricultural Research, at www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/, in either html or pdf format, include:

"Flower Power Puts a Hurt on Caterpillars," 16 August; "Cacao Collection Expedition May Yield Weapons for Combating Witches' Broom Disease," 15 September; "Scientists Develop New Potato Lines to Wage War on Wireworms," 19 September.

III. IPM Medley > Equipment, Products, Processes, Services > Professional Opportunities > Sorting Through the "In" Box

= EQUIPMENT, PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, SERVICES = A Possible Case of Resistance A U.S. based entomologist recently called to inspect Bt maize (Cry3Bb1) fields suffering severe root damage observed a heavy presence of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm) at the site and fallen (lodged) plants possibly implicating a Cry3Bb1-resistant population of the pest insect.

A recommendation for alternatives to handle the problem included: 1) rotation to a different crop (infected fields had been planted with continuous Bt maize for many years); 2) apply a suitable soil insecticide when planting the next crop; 3) if planning to again plant a Bt maize hybrid, use seed that expresses a Cry protein different than the one planted in 2011; or, 4) plant a pyramided (stacked) Bt hybrid that expresses multiple Cry proteins targeted against corn rootworms. -> M.E. Gray, MEGray@illinois.edu. excerpted, with thanks, from AG PROFESSIONAL, Dealer Update, 01 September, 2011. Let Us Spray

For instances of a grower with v-e-r-y deep pockets wishing to apply pesticide to extensive areas, a major international equipment manufacturer offers the latest and greatest new self-propelled behemoth application machine that retails for just under US5,000 a copy and sports: 4-wheel hydrostatic drive; 340 hp turbocharged diesel engine; 1.3 m crop clearance; an automatically controlled 36 m wide boom in 11 sections; a 4,550 lt automatically cleaned, fast-fill tank; controlled atmosphere cab; application control and documenting by an in-cab automated computing display; 8.5 cu.m dry material box spreader; 40 kph maximum application speed with 56 kph empty transport speed; GPS guidance device; and a host of other convenience, reliability, and safety features.

= PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES = Pest Management Guidelines Coordinator / Senior Editor, Davis, CA, USA * Coordinate development, updating, editing, and production of the Pest Management Guidelines series of publications; develop, or guide development of, year-round IPM programs and integrate them into the Guidelines; edit and write Guidelines; prepare associated materials; coordinate materials through actual publication (hard copy and electronic); as needed, travel to sites to gather information and take digital photos. * REQUIRES: MS in an area related to pest management; experience writing, proofreading, and editing documents for content, logic, clarity, accuracy, and conformance to style and format; knowledge of plant biology and pest management; organizational skills; willingness to travel periodically; ability to work collaboratively and effectively; high degree of English language capability; experience producing computer-based publications. See: tinyurl.com * CONTACT: T.A. Martin, UC IPM, UCD, Davis, CA 95616-8620, USA. TLAMartin@ucdavis.edu. Fax: 1-530-752-9336. Voice: 1-530-752-8920. NOTE: If applying, HURRY, stated closing date is 21 October 2011.


// In a recent issue of the Bulletin from the Univ. of Illinois (USA) agronomist/ weed scientist A. Hager offers some illustrated 'do's and don'ts' for weed control after field crop harvest (mainly based on herbicides) tinyurl.com Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has published a new revised list of pesticide risk reduction projects for 2011 on the Pest Management Centre website at tinyurl.com Rothamsted Research in the UK has been cleared to conduct the UK's first trials of genetically modified wheat starting in 2012, according to a report in a recent issue of Crop Protection Monthly www.crop-protection-monthly.co.uk.

// The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is considering a proposal to require pesticide manufacturers to print all pesticide labels in both English and Spanish. tinyurl.com IV. IPM-Related Publications > Books, Other Longer Publications

IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention publications focused on, or related to, crop plant IPM, pest management, crop protection, or invasives. To facilitate review please send a copy of the publication, along with full details, to IPMnet NEWS (address at the end of this file). A {$} symbol indicates an item can be purchased or that there may be charges for handling, postage, or both. many thanks, Ed.


Climate change and its affect on "plants out of place" (aka, weeds) presents a challenge that scientists L.H. Ziska and J.S. Dukes examine in a 2011 publication, Weed Biology and Climate Change. The thrust is to "assess and synthesize recent information regarding the unprecedented increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and the associated change in climate, particularly temperature and precipitation, in regard to basic and applied aspects of weed biology." The hardbound book's 11 chapters focus on a broad range of weed-related topics ranging from biology to weed management, all approached with a fresh and intriguing text. One chapter even delves into the paradox presented by some plants that on one hand may be annoying or even hazardous, yet may have certain redeeming characteristics from an ethnobotanical view such as potential biofuel feedstock or as a basis for certain medical products. The volume's 248 pages offer a variety of black/white illustrations, plus an appendix of weed common and scientific names and a brief description of each species. -> Wiley-Blackwell, 111 River St., Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, USA. Fax: 1-201-748-6088. Voice: 1-201-748-6000. tinyurl.com ALIENS

As editor D. Pimentel observes in the preface of the second edition of Biological Invasions , "the impact of invasive species is second only to that of human population growth and associated activities as a cause of the loss of biodiversity" worldwide. This 2011 volume, subtitled "Economic and Environmental Costs of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Species," melds the contributions of leading scientists from across the globe to provide a single reference source on a timely and important subject. The hardbound, 463-page work reconfirms the diverse and unpredictable roles that non-native species assume as they invade new territory. The 46 contributing authors describe both the environmental impacts and estimate economic costs of alien species while also affording a better understanding of how prevent their spread and improve existing control processes. The monograph presents numerous black/white illustrations. -> CRC Press, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA. See: www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/978143982905.

V. IPM-Related Research/Technical Articles > Special Issues > Selected Titles


The August 2011 issue of BioControl (Vol. 55, no. 4) is a special issue, entitled "Invasive Arthropod Predators and Parasitoids: An Ecological Approach," comprising 19 papers, as edited by H.E. Roy, et al.


Phytopathology """"""""""""""" “Derivation and Testing of a Model to Predict Selection for Fungicide Resistance,” Hobbelen, P.H.F., et al. * PLANT PATH., 60(2), 304-313, April 2011.

“Economic Returns from Fungicide Application to Control Foliar Fungal Diseases in Winter Wheat,” Wegulo, S.N., et al. * CROP PROT., 30(6), 587-591, June 2011.

Weed Science / Invasives """""""""""""""""""""""""""""" “Could Knotweed’s Reign of Terror be Over?,” Djeddour, D., and R. Shaw. * PESTICIDES NEWS, 91, 12-13, March 2011.

“The Importance of Climate, Site and Management on Weed Vegetation in Oilseed Rape in Germany,” Hanzlik, K., and B. Gerowitt.. * AGRIC., ECOSYST. & ENVIRON., 141(3-4), 323-331, May 2011.

“Classical Biological Control of Cirsium arvense: Lessons from the Past,” Cripps, M.G., et al. * BIOL. CONTROL, 57(3), 165-252, June 2011.

Entomology """""""""""""" “Determining an Economic Injury Level for the Persea Mite, Oligonychus perseae, a New Pest of Avocado in Israel,” Maoz, Y., et al. * ENTOMOLO. EXP. ET APPLIC., 138(2), 110–116, February 2011.

“Effect on Radish Pests by Application of Insecticides in a Nearby Spring Oilseed Rape Field,” Ahmed, N., et al. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ENTOM., 135(3), 168-176, April 2011.

“Insecticides Suppress Natural Enemies and Increase Pest Damage in Cabbage,” Bommarco, R., et al. * JRNL. OF ECON. ENTOM., 104(3), 782-791, June 2011.

Transgenics """""""""" “Suppressing Resistance to Bt Cotton with Sterile Insect Releases,” Tabashnik, B.E., et al. * NATURE BIOTECH., 28(12), 1304-1307, December 2010.

“A Literature Review on the Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants,” Domingo, J.L. and J.G. Bordonaba. * ENVIRON. INTL., 37(4), 734-742, May 2011.

“Field-evolved Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm,” Gassmann, A.J., et al. * PloS ONE, 6(7), July 2011.

Vertebrates """"""""""""" “Effectiveness of Solar Blinkers as a Means of Crop Protection from Wild Boar Damage,” Schlageter, A., and D. Haag-Wackernagel. * CROP PROT., 30(9) 1216-1222, September 2011.

General """"""""" “Climate Change: A Crop Protection Challenge for the Twenty-first Century,” Gustafson, D.L. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 67(6), 691-696, June 2011.

“Could Society’s Willingness to Reduce Pesticide Use be Aligned with Farmers’ Economic Self-interest?” Boussemart, J.-P., et al. * ECOLOG. ECON., 70(10), 1797-1804, August 2011.

VI. U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM-CRSP) - IPM in Central Asia


One of the IPM-CRSP's many thrusts is IPM in Central Asia (CAIPM), an initiative founded on an ecologically-based and multidisciplinary systems approach, encompassing activities in collaboration with host institutions across the region including the nations of KAZAKHSTAN, KYRGYZSTAN, TAJIKISTAN, and UZBEKISTAN.

The project aims to foster development of comprehensive IPM for three key Central Asian food crops: wheat, tomatoes, and potatoes as identified in consultations with, and recommendations from, various stakeholders. "An important part of the project," notes project coordinator K. Maredia, at Michigan State Univ. (MSU) in the U.S., "will be capacity building of expertise in the region to extend the knowledge gained from the project long after it is over." MSU manages the the project in conjunction with Univ. of California-Davis, Kansas State Univ., and the International Center for Agric. Research in the Dry Areas ICARDA) headquartered near Aleppo, SYRIA.

According to the project's website at www.ipm.msu.edu/central-asia.htm the main goal is to increase food security through improved pest management practices for the three main food crops. IPM packages are being developed based on combining existing practices with new technologies. Establishment of pilot sites will be used for research, training, and demonstration. The sites will be linked to farmer field schools to deliver results to local farmers. Graduate students are being trained and arrangements are in place to provide opportunities for more than 200 regional IPM professionals to attend various training programs, workshops, seminars, and short courses with due consideration of gender balance. A conceptual framework for activities can be viewed on the website.

-> K. Maredia, 416 Plant and Soil Sci., MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824-1325, U.S. KMaredia@msu.edu. Voice: 1-517-353-5262. excerpted, with thanks, from the project website: thanks also, to K. Maredia and J.N. Landis for information.

VII. IPMnet CALENDARUpdate > (N)ew or [R]evised Entries for the IPMnet CALENDAR

NOTES: 1. The IPMnet CALENDARUpdate , lists only: (N)ew events not previously cited in IPMnet NEWS; and, [R]evised events with new information compared to previous mention in IPMnet NEWS.

2. The IPMnet CALENDAR, Latest Complete Version , can be requested any time from IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. It is also online at www.pestinfo.org/calendar.php3 courtesy of International Society for Pest Information (ISPI) executive director B. Zelazny. The latter site includes features designed for user convenience. The IPMnet CALENDARUpdate section appears in each IPMnet NEWS issue.

3. IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about future events, or revisions, emailed to IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. Information listed in the IPMnet CALENDARUpdate was supplied by, and collected from, various sources; IPMnet greatly appreciates all cooperation. Note: websites listed herein are current as of publication of this issue of IPMnet NEWS, but may be subject to change.

(N)ewly Listed, or [R]evised Entries: as of 14 October 2011


(N) 17-19 October * NWESTERN (CANADIAN) FORUM ON PEST MANAGEMENT 2011, Kelowna, BC, CANADA. Info: www.westernforum.org.

(N) 24-26 October * 24th CONFERENCE, INTERNATIONAL WORKING GROUP OF OSTRINA, Freiburg, GERMANY. Info: U. Kuhlmann, CABI Europe, Rue des Grillons 1, 2800 Delemont, SWITZERLAND. conference@iwgo.org. www.iwgo.org.

(N) 06-09 November * 3rd MEETING, NATIONAL PLANT DIAGNOSTIC NETWORK, Berkeley, CA, USA. Info: ucanr.org 22-24 November * 13th CONGRESO NACIONAL MALHERBOLOGIA, “Plantas Invasoras, Resistencias a Herbicidas y Deteccion de Malas Hierbas,” San Cristobal de La Laguna, SPAIN. Info: M.N. Rodriguez, cagraria@ull.es. tinyurl.com 11-16 December * 6th INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOPESTICIDES, “Biopesticides and Naturalites Shaping World Agriculture, Public Health and the Environment,” Chiang Mai, THAILAND. Info: www.icob6.org.

(N) 15-19 December * 6th WORLD CONGRESS ON ALLELOPATHY, “Allelopathy for Sustainable Development–from Theory to Practice,” Guangzhou, CHINA. Info: tinyurl.com sixth_wca@yahoo.com.cn.


(N) 23-25 January * CALIFORNIA WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY 2012 CONFERENCE, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. Info: www.cwss.org.

(N) 16-21 April * WEED MANAGEMENT IN MODERN AGRICULTURE, SHORT COURSE, Zaragoza, SPAIN. Info: R. Belkodja, Belkodja@iamz.chiheam.org. Www.iamz.ciheam.org.

(N) 22-26 April * ASOCHYTA 2012: 3RD INTERNATIONAL ASOCHYTA WORKSHOP, Cordoba, SPAIN. Info: ge1mivat@uca.es. tinyurl.com

14-16 August * NEW ZEALAND PLANT PROTECTION SOCIETY 2012 CONFERENCE, Nelson, NEW ZEALAND. Info: H. Pearson, NZPPS, PO Box 14018, Christchurch 8544, NEW ZEALAND. secretary@nzpps.org. www.nzpps.org.

(N) 17-20 September * 7th AUSTRALASIAN SOILBORNE DISEASES SYMPOSIUM, Fremantle, WA, AUSTRALIA. Info: S. Brown, Sally.Brown@uq.net.au. www.asds7.org.

(N) 09-12 October * MEETING, IOBC/WPRS WORKING GROUP, “Integrated Control in Protected Crops, Mediterranean Climate,” Catania, Sicily, ITALY. Info: Cristina.Castane@irta.es.

2013 - 2014

No (N)ew or [R]evised events to report for these years (in this listing).


(N) 24-27 August * 18th INTERNATIONAL PLANT PROTECTION CONGRESS, “Mission Possible: Food for All through Adequate Plant Protection,” Berlin/Dahlem, GERMANY. Info: tinyurl.com

IPMnet NEWS * October-November 2011 * Issue #190

About IPMnet: IPMnet is a free, global, electronic IPM information service conducted in collaboration with the Integrated Plant Protection Center (IPPC) at Oregon State Univ., USA, www.ipmnet.org, and underwritten by the U.S. Agency for International Development's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program tinyurl.com the Integrated Pest Management Information Platform for Extension and Education (IPM PIPE); www.ipmpipe.org, and IPPC. IPMnet maintains working relationships with the International Society for Pest Information www.pestinfo.org, and the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences www.plantprotection.org.

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Copyright and Reprinting: Content is copyright protected; however, items appearing in the NEWS may be reprinted or quoted without permission, provided IPMnet NEWS is clearly identified as the source. Of course, IPMnet appreciates being alerted to any instance referring to the NEWS. ISSN: 1523-7893. IPMnet is a registered and protected trademark.

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