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INTEGRATED PLANT PROTECTION CENTER

IPMnet NEWS


January 2012, Issue no. 192
ISSN: 1523-7893 © Copyright 2005


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IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

I. IPM News

WORLD'S WORST PLANT PESTS
The choice is nearly impossible; that was the response from UK-based CABI when asked by BBC News to compile a list of the worst plant pests threatening crops globally. CABI's chief scientist, M. Cock, pointed to a host of variable factors involved, thus making selection an all but arbitrary exercise.

Nevertheless, CABIa well known agri-environment research organizationmade a valiant effort that Dr. Cock labeled as being "by no means definitive therefore, nor a serious attempt to prioritize the threats posed by different agricultural pests." Most of CABI's far ranging choices follow.

Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust) was picked as the worst historical pest having been in evidence for over 2,000 years, and with periodic capability for devastating a variety of crops. Another candidate for historically worst pest was the image staring back from the mirror, Homo sapiens, for introducing pest organisms to new habitats, either accidentally or purposefully in association with some misguided venture.

In the category of hardest pest to control CABI nominated Microcyclus ulei (South American rubber blight), a pathogen that has resisted control attempts for over a century. Another prime offender mentioned as defying control is Fusarium xylarioides (coffee wilt disease). Based on the amount of pesticide once used to control it and the expense of developing transgenic strains, the label of most expensive pest to control was awarded to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (western corn rootworm) even as scientists are observing first indications that resistance to modern genetically engineered plants is breaking down.

Darkly, the pest of greatest human impact tag was attached to Phytophthora infestans (potato blight) for several reasons, primarily its causative role in the Irish potato famine during the mid-1800s. The fungus that devastated coffee production in SRI LANKA in the 19th century, Hemilaea vastatrix (coffee leaf rust) also had significant human impact being, by some accounts, a prime reason why the UK became a huge consumer of tea.

CABI pointed to Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Colorado potato beetle) as earning the mantel of most resilient pest for developing resistance to over 50 pesticidal compounds, noting that "this beetle therefore has effectively beaten the chemists." The evil-doer list also includes the class of most imminent threat handed to Puccinia graminis tritici (wheat stem rust) strain Ug99 discovered in 1998 and now spreading across Africa, Asia, and the Middle East.

CABI also cites some other culprits. The full listing, including supporting rational, can be read at http://tinyurl.com/co42s3n -> M. Cock, CABI, Bakeham Lane, Egham, Surrey, TW20 9TY, UK. M.Cock@cabi.org. excerpted, with thanks, from BBC News, and from CABI information.

NEW COMMISSION TO BOOST BIOCONTROL IN NORTH AFRICA
A new commission has been formed to help strengthen biological control and other pest management activities conducted in nations across North Africa. The organization was created to operate through, and be affiliated with, the International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palaearctic Section (IOBC/WPRS).

As envisioned, the Commission will function somewhat similarly to a working group, but with a narrower geographical focus. Member states of the new commission include: ALGERIA, EGYPT, LIBYA, MOROCCO, and TUNISIA, plus a representative from the International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association and a representative from the agrochemical industry.

Among the Commission's main tasks are to:
• establish a network among member countries to promote biocontrol, IPM, and integrated production;
• identify crop protection issues in the region;
• help develop sustainable solutions;
• build up contacts with governmental bodies, research organizations, and other stakeholders; and,
• collaboratively organize regional crop protection meetings and workshops.

As a first step, the Commission has published a multi-page brochure introducing the organization and explaining its rationale, composition, and other details. See: tinyurl.com -> Commission convener: M. Besri, IAV Hassan II, BP 6202 Rabat Instituts, MOROCCO. M.Besri@iav.ac.ma. Voice: 212-0-53-777-8364. excerpted, with thanks, from IOBC/WPRS and Commission materials .

BIOPESTICIDES GAINING ON CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTS
The global biopesticide market is outpacing the market for synthetic pesticides, according to a recent statement by an officer in a major U.S. biopesticide research and production firm.

Speaking at the December 2011 Informa Life Sciences inaugural biopesticide conference, M. Meadows-Smith, chief executive of AgraQuest, pointed out that the biopesticide market was expanding annually at approximately 10 percent while the market for conventional pesticides lagged at around 2 percent growth. The biopesticide market value has rocketed from US!!news_content!!.9 billion in 2000 to over US.0 billion currently.

Dr. Meadows-Smith said that the U.S. is the largest market for biopesticides, currently at 36 percent of the total, followed in descending order by Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America, and the rest of the world. He projects an overall increase in biopesticide market value to US.7 billion by 2015.

In his presentation Meadows-Smith observed that biopesticides needed to be consistent in performance, cost effective, and be the preferred option for food value chains. For this they must be as effective as conventional pesticides, if they are to be successful. He pointed out that biopesticides fit into IPM approaches where, when used together with conventional pesticides, they can increase efficiency, raise yields, and decrease the overall chemical impact. excerpted, with thanks, from CROP PROTECTION MONTHLY, issue of 31 December 2011.

IPM GLOBAL NOTES

* Based on trials, flaming for weed management should be conducted in the afternoon to improve control efficiency and reduce propane gas consumption. S.Z. Knezevic, SKnezevic2@unl.edu.

* Genetic resistance to anticoagulant compounds occurring in populations of Rattus norvergicus (Norway rats) and other rodents worldwide causes problems for control and poses a threat to predators and scavengers because individuals can carry high anti-coagulant loads. J. Jacob, Jens.Jacob@jki.bund.de.

* Results from a 1992-2008 study indicated that pesticide hazard in the UK has decreased, but unevenly across all crops and years. P. Cross, afs202@bangor.ac.uk.

* Solar-powered nighttime illumination significantly suppressed a population of light averse Adoertus sinicus (Chinese rose beetle), a serious pest of young Theobroma cacao trees. G.T. McQuate, Grant.McQuate@ars.usda.gov.

* Litter from genetically modified trees expressing Bt (cry3Aa) was found to affect the composition of aquatic insect communities colonizing the litter under natural stream conditions. P. Axelsson, Petter.Axelsson@vfm.slu.se.

II. IPM Information Resources
• Recently Published Information
• Other Published Materials

Recently Published Information
IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about websites, publications, CD/DVDs, or videos focused on, or related to, crop IPM, crop protection, or invasive species. Please send a review copy of the material to the postal address at end of this file; or, send the URL to: IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. A {$} symbol indicates an item can be purchased, or that there may be charges for handling, postage, or both.

GUIDE FOR PESTICIDE USE (in French)

The French ARVALIS--Institut du Vegetal, a grower-financed applied research institute www.arvalisinstitutduvegetal.fr/en/, recently published a documentaimed at field crop growers raising wheat or maize-based systemsthat presents ཨ operational options to reduce impacts on the environment and use of plant protection products while maintaining economic efficiency,' in a French version (൴ Solutions Concretes pour Reduire L'Impact des Produits Phytosanitaires, Guide Pratique - Edition Ouest"). The 88-page work is dated November 2011. {$} Editions ARVALIS, BP 93, 14110 Conde-sur-Noireau, FRANCE. Fax: 33-0-23-169-4435. Voice: 33-0-23-159-2500. excerpted, with thanks, from the ARVALIS website; thanks also to D. Gouache for information.

OVERVIEW OF GM CROPS IN ARGENTINA

An extensive report published in November 2011, Fifteen Years of Genetically Modified Crops in Argentina, concludes that ARGENTINA's early adoption of new technologies has been both advantageous and beneficial. However, author E.J. Trigo specifically cautions that, "Drifting apart from the innovation frontier may have disturbing consequences." The detailed document can be freely downloaded in both Spanish and English versions at tinyurl.com excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated website.

OTHER PUBLISHED MATERIALS

* The latest edition of the Quarterly Newsletter from the SP-IPM is no. 9 published December 2011. It was not on the SP-IPM website as of 17 January 2012. For information, contact SP-IPM@cgiar.org.

* Also from the SP-IPM, Technical Innovation Brief No. 15, December 2011, is "Ecological EngineeringA Strategy to Restore Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services for Pest Management in Rice Production," by K.L. Heong, see: tinyurl.com The ENDURE effort in Europe has published issue 14 of its newsletter, dated December 2011. The file has yet to be uploaded to the ENDURE website, but the file for it can be requested from M. Barzman, scientific officer, at Marco.Barzman@grignon.inra.fr.

* The latest issue of Resistant Pest Management Newsletter (vol. 21, no. 1, Fall 2011) is online at tinyurl.com Crop protection related U.S. Agricultural Research Service articles appearing in recent issues of Agricultural Research, at www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/, in either html or pdf format, include:

"Controlling Whiteflies the Natural Way," 06 December, 2011;
"Decoding Corn Defenses for Improved Pest Resistance," 05 January 2012.

III. IPM Medley
• Equipment, Products, Processes, Services
• Professional Opportunities
• Sorting Through the "In" Box

EQUIPMENT, PRODUCTS, PROCESSES, SERVICES

THERE JUST MIGHT BE AN APP FOR THAT

Who knew? Just as in most other segments of society, the wave of "apps" for use with smart phones is also washing up on the shores of agriculture and more specifically pest management. Here are some random examples of why folks may be carrying one of those whiz-bang phones to the field and risking getting it a little dirty.

Need a description of acrostichal bristles? It's available in the Entomology Dictionary app, a huge collection of 4,500 words and terms by Hurryforward Ltd. and available from iTunes {$} (tinyurl.com A highly rated app from AgBioComm SDSU is NPIPM Guide, for northern U.S. plains states (tinyurl.com describing current effective management options for insect and other arthropod pests as well as plant pathogens attacking major field crops of the region. The same source also has produced Noxious Weeds of South Dakota.

Another potentially useful, free, app is Precision Laboratory Mix Tank from Precision Laboratories (www.mixtankapp.com) touted as helping users determine the correct mixing sequence of crop protection product combinations, application amounts, recommended products, and other information. Marrone Bio Innovations' app, Mobile Ag Tank Mix Calculator aids in calculating the proper ratios of products to be mixed together (tinyurl.com Several other apps address roughly the same topic, such as: Tank Mix Calculator from TapLogic, LLC (tinyurl.com and Syngenta TankCalc from Syngenta (tinyurl.com Two other apps from iTunes are: Field Notes (tinyurl.com by AGS Sales & Consulting {$}aimed at keeping product use records electronically rather than on the back of a soiled envelope; another well rated program is AGRIplot (tinyurl.com ($) by SharpeTech designed to allow users to plot any area or distance on a map, such as a field, or other demarcated area.

NOTE: There are doubtlessly many other useful apps available beyond the few mentioned here. IPMnet NEWS would welcome learning about them. Please forward particulars to: IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. thanks, Ed.

excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated websites; and, with thanks, from UTAH PESTS News, vol. 5, Fall 2011.

PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES = Research Agronomist, Weed Science, Dijon, FRANCE. * Plan, design, and conduct research on cropping systems with low reliance on herbicides, based on management methods involving alternative regulation processes; contribute to developing such management methods and evaluating the sustainability of resulting cropping systems; develop collaboration with farmers involved in IPM. * REQUIRES: PhD in agronomy; fluency in French; strong written English skills; * CONTACT: N. Munier-Jolain, INRA (French National Inst. for Agric. Rsch.) 17 rue Sully, 21065 Dijon, FRANCE. Fax: 33-0-38-069-3222. Voice: 33-0-38-069-3035 Nicolas.Munier-Jolain@dijon.inra.fr. Submit applications 26 January to 28 February 2012. Application details at: www.international.inra.fr/join_us/.

SORTING THROUGH THE "IN" BOX

- Editors at AgProfessional, an online publication, selected Grandevo (from Marrone Bio Innovations), a naturally-based broad-spectrum insecticide, as one of its top 10 new products of the year. The product can be used on either agricultural or ornamental crops. When targeted insects encounter Grandevo they become highly agitated and try to remove the product from their bodies; when it is ingested the treated insects stop feeding and die. excerpted, with thanks, from AgProfessional's website, tinyurl.com

- An Algerian research team is testing metabolites from four desert plants for effectiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis, the fungus that causes Phoenix dactylifer (date palm) to suffer the severe effects of Bayoud's disease in Saharan regions of ALGERIA, and MOROCCO. See: SciDev Net article at tinyurl.com excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated website; thanks also to G. Jackson for information.

IV. IPM-Related Publications Books, Other Longer Publications

IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention publications focused on, or related to, crop plant IPM, pest management, crop protection, or invasives. To facilitate review please send a copy of the publication, along with full details, to IPMnet NEWS(address at the end of this file). A {$} symbol indicates an item can be purchased or that there may be charges for handling, postage, or both. many thanks, Ed.

GM APPROACHES IN HORTICULTURE

With the public spotlight on genetically modified field crops such as maize, soy, and cotton, GM approaches for other important crops receive less attention. A 2011 monograph, Transgenic Horticultural Crops, Challenges and Opportunities, shifts attention to another segment of economically important crops, and particularly food crops. Editors B. Mou and R. Scorza, have drawn upon an international group of scientist-authors to illuminate advances in applying transgenic methods to address anti-pest protection for fruit and nut crops, vegetables, and ornamental plants. The 355-page, hardbound volume touches on numerous aspects of GM crops, some similar to field crops, others importantly unique to horticultural crops and the additional burden of addressing products intended for human consumption. Chapters range from crop specific to broadly general such as aspects of regulation, consumer acceptance or rejection, and research perspectives. The book includes one short full color photo section. {$} -> CRC Press, 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300, Boca Raton, FL 33487, USA. See: www.crcpress.com/product/isbn/9781420093780.



V. IPM-Related Research/Technical Articles
• Special Issues
• Featured Article
• Selected Titles

SPECIAL ISSUES

The October 2011 edition of BIOLOGICAL CONTROL (vol. 59, no. 1) is a Special Issue focused on “Heteropteran Predators and their Role in Biological Control in Agroecosystems,” at http://tinyurl.com/6rowtc6

Not to be outdone, the journal BIOCONTROL offered a special issue (vol. 56, no. 4) highlighting “Invasive Alien Arthropod Predators and Parasitoids: An Ecological Approach,” edited by H.E. Roy, et al, encompassing 19 articles by an array of knowledgeable scientists, at www.springerlink.com

FEATURED ARTICLE

A study conducted to better understand how pesticides are handled and used by small-scale farmers in a Brazilian tropical region found that labor scarcity, inadequate protective gear, careless mixing practices, and limited effectiveness labeling information are all contributing to increased risk of intoxication and environmental degradation. In their paper, "Modes of Pesticide Utilization by Brazilian Smallholders and their Implications for Human Health and the Environment," recently published in CROP PROTECTION, M.A. Pedlowski, et al, noted that since 2008 BRAZIL "has become the largest consumer of pesticides worldwide," as a possible link to the safety issues and potential risks documented in this study. In conclusion the authors cite an urgent need to "address legislation, labeling, training and other measures that would provide incentives to reduce intoxication risks to both Brazilian farmers and the environment. excerpted, with thanks, from CROP PRODUCTION, 31(1), January 2012; thanks also to the article's authors.

SELECTED ARTICLES

Phytopathology """"""""""""""" “Potato Viruses in China,” Wang, B., et al. * CROP PROT., 30(9) 1116-1123, September 2011.

“Occurrence and Diversity of Pome Fruit Viruses in Apple and Pear Orchards in Latvia,” Pupola, N., et al. * JRNL. OF PHYTOPATH., 159(9), 597-605, September 2011.

“Advances in Plant Virus Evolution: Translating Evolutionary Insights into Better Disease Management,” Acosta-Leal, R., et al. * PHYTOPATH., 101(10), 1136-1148, October 2011.

Weed Science / Invasive Plants """""""""""""""""""""""""""""" “Choosing the Best Environmental Weed Targets for Biocontrol,” Paynter, Q. * WHAT’S NEW IN BIOL. CONT. OF WEEDS?,” 57, 04-06, August 2011.

“A Vision for Weed Science in the Twenty-first Century,” Breen, J., and M. Ogasawara. * WEED BIOL. AND MGMT., 11(3), 113-117, September 2011.

“Herbicide-tolerant Transgenic Soybean over 15 Years of Cultivation: Pesticide Use, Weed Resistance, and Some Economic Issues. The Case of the USA,” Bonny, S. * SUSTAINABILITY, 3(9), 1302-1322, September 2011.

Entomology """"""""""""" “Arthropod Pests of Currant and Gooseberry Crops in the U.K.; Their Biology, Management and Future Prospects,” Mitchell, C., et al. * AGRIC. AND FOREST ENTOM., 13(3), 221-237, August 2011.

“Optimizing Biocontrol Using Phenological Day Degree Models: the European Earwig in Pipfruit Orchards,” Moerkens, R., et al. * AGRIC. AND FOREST ENTOM., 13(3), 301-312, August 2011.

Transgenics """"""""""" “Bt Maize and Integrated Pest Management - A European Perspective,” Meissle, M., et al. * PEST MGMT. SCI., 67(9), 1049-1058, September 2011.

Vertebrates """"""""""" “Understanding of Relationships Between Ground Cover and Rat Abundances: An Integrative Approach for Management of the Oil Palm Agroecosystem,” Puan, C.L., et al. * CROP PROT., 30(10), 1263-1268, October 2011.

General """"""""" “Application of IPM Practices by Paddy Farmers in Sari County of Mazandaran Province, Iran,” Borkhani, F.R., et al. * AFR. JRNL. OF AGRIC. RSCH., 6(21), 4884-4892, October 2011.

“Biological Control in Brazil,” Bueno, V.H.P. * PESTICIDES NEWS, 93, 2011.

“The Role of Synthetic Pesticides in the Intensification of Highland Agriculture in Thailand,” Schreinemachers, P., et al. * CROP PROT., 30(11), 1430-1437, November 2011.

VI. U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM-CRSP) - Vegetable Virology Workshop Planned

VEGETABLE VIROLOGY WORKSHOP PLANNED

Scientists from INDIA, the U.S., and IPM CRSP host countries in Asia, Africa and Central and South America will be the main participants at a 3-day workshop devoted to Management of Insect-transmitted Virus Diseases in Vegetables in the Tropics and Sub-tropics. The event, slated for 13-16 July 2012, will be held at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, INDIA.

The workshop will open with and an overview of plant pathology research, extension, and education, followed by presentations addressing advances in fundamental research in plant pathology, and advances in applied research in plant virology. Several general sessions are planned relating to IPM and to the IPM-CRSP's activities and programs involving virology research.

An all-day field trip will provide workshop participants with the opportunity to observe virus diseases of tropical "hill" crops such as potato, crucifers, cucurbits, and others. A second field activity will involve visits to vegetable markets and farmers' fields to observe virus diseases of lowland tropical crops.

To view a draft program for the workshop see tinyurl.com or contact: IPM-CRSP, Fax: 1-540-231-3519. Voice: 1-540-231-3516. excerpted, with thanks, from IPM-CRSP materials.

VII. IPMnet CALENDAR--Update
(N)ew or [R]evised Entries for the IPMnet CALENDAR

NOTES: 1. The IPMnet CALENDAR--Update , lists only: (N) New events not previously cited in IPMnet NEWS; and, [R] Revised events with new information compared to a previous mention in IPMnet NEWS.

2. The IPMnet CALENDAR, Latest Complete Version, can be requested any time from IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. It is also online at www.pestinfo.org/calendar.php3 courtesy of International Society for Pest Information (ISPI) executive director B. Zelazny. The latter site includes features designed for user convenience. The IPMnet CALENDARUpdate section appears in each IPMnet NEWS issue.

3. IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about future events, or revisions, emailed to IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. Information listed in the IPMnet CALENDARUpdate was supplied by, and collected from, various sources; IPMnet greatly appreciates all cooperation. Note: websites listed herein are current as of publication of this issue of IPMnet NEWS, but may be subject to change.

(N)ewly Listed, or [R]evised Entries: as of 16 January 2012

2012

(N) 22-23 February * 14th PACIFIC ENTOMOLOGY CONFERENCE, Honolulu, HI, USA. Info: tinyurl.com (N) 28 February-01 March * NATIONAL INVASIVE SPECIES FORUM, Ottawa, ONT, CANADA. Info: J. Romyn, Romyn@invasiveplantcouncilbc.ca.

(N) 13-15 March * 25th GERMAN CONFERENCE ON WEED BIOLOGY AND CONTROL, Braunschweig, GERMANY. Info: unkrauttagung@jki.bund.de. www.unkrauttagung.de.

(N) 19-21 March * PURE 1st CONGRESS, Riva del Garda, ITALY. Info: www.pure-ipm.eu.

(N) 28-29 March * 2nd INTERNATIONAL RAGWEED CONFERENCE, Lyon, FRANCE. Info: www.ambrosia2012.eu.

(N) 16-18 May * 10th FUMIGANTS & PHEROMONES INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, "Pest Management Around the World," Indianapolis, IN, USA. Info: tinyurl.com (N) 31 May-02 June * 6th ANNUAL ARTHROPOD GENOMICS SYMPOSIUM, Kansas City, MO, USA. Info: D. Merrill, Dmerrill@k-state.edu. www.k-state.edu/agc.

[R] 24-29 June * New information * 13th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON VIRUS DISEASES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS, Ski and Grimstad, NORWAY. Info: tinyurl.com (N) 13-16 July * WORKSHOP ON MANAGEMENT OF INSECT-TRANSMITTED VIRUS DISEASES IN VEGETABLES IN THE TROPICS AND SUBTROPICS, Coimbatore, INDIA. Info: tinyurl.com (N) 16-20 September * 12th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOSAFETY OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS, St. Louis, MO, USA. Info: www.isbgmo.com.

(N) 01-05 October * 10th CONFERENCE OF THE EUROPEAN FOUNDATION FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY, "IPM 2.0, Towards Future-Proof Crop Protection in Europe," Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS. Info: www.efpp.net/IPM2.

2013

(N) 20-23 January * SOUTHERN AFRICAN SOCIETY OF PLANT PATHOLOGY CONFERENCE, Hartebeespoortdam, SOUTH AFRICA. Info: A.McLeod, www.saspp.co.za.

(N) 23-25 January * CALIFORNIA WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY CONFERENCE, Sacramento, CA, USA. Info: CWSS, PO Box 3073, Salinas, CA 93912-3073, USA. manager@cwss.org. www.cwss.org. Fax: 1-831-442-2351. Voice: 1-831-442-0883.

(N) 28-31 January * 12th INTERNATIONAL PLANT VIRUS EPIDEMIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, Arusha, TANZANIA. Info: L. Kumar, L.Kumar@cgiar.org. www.iita.org/ipve.

(N) 04-08 March * 4th INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF ARTHROPODS, Pucon, CHILE. Info: T. Zaviezo, Vicuna Mackenna, 4860 Santiago, CHILE. isbca2013@isbca.org. www.isbca.org.

(N) 18-24 October * 150th ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF ONTARIO ANNUAL MEETING, jointly with the ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF CANADA, Guelph, ONT, CANADA. Info: N. McKenzie, Nicole.McKenzie@hc-sc.ca. www.entsocont.ca.

2014

(N) 22-24 January * CALIFORNIA WEED SCIENCE SOCIETY CONFERENCE, Monterey, CA, USA. Info: CWSS, PO Box 3073, Salinas, CA 93912-3073, USA. manager@cwss.org. www.cwss.org. Fax: 1-831-442-2351. Voice: 1-831-442-0883.

2015

No (N)ew or [R]evised events to report for this year (in this listing).



IPMnet NEWS * January/February 2012* Issue #192 About IPMnet: IPMnet is a free, global, electronic IPM information service conducted in collaboration with the Integrated Plant Protection Center (IPPC) at Oregon State Univ., USA, www.ipmnet.org, and underwritten by the U.S. Agency for International Development's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program tinyurl.com the Integrated Pest Management Information Platform for Extension and Education (IPM PIPE); www.ipmpipe.org, and IPPC. IPMnet maintains working relationships with the International Society for Pest Information www.pestinfo.org, and the International Association for the Plant Protection Sciences www.plantprotection.org.

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