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April / May 2012, Issue no. 194
ISSN: 1523-7893 © Copyright 2005

IPM NEWS --- international IPM news and programs

I. IPM News

METHOD IDENTIFIES DISEASE-CARRYING APHIDS Scientists working in the USA have developed a method to differentiate between aphids that carry and spread plant viruses and aphids that do not. The finding could lead to a reduction in insecticide use in situations where aphids are neither carrying pathogens and are in low enough numbers to be below the economic threshold on a crop.

The researchers used protein biomarkers to distinguish between virus-carrying and virus-free aphids. Previous work had revealed that for aphids to acquire and transmit viruses, the virus had to be able to interact with specific aphid proteins that direct move- ment of the virus through the insect and back into a plant during feeding. The key was the presence or absence of nine biomarker proteins occurring in the insect's cells. Tests of aphids indicated that those carrying most, if not all, of the nine biomarkers consistently transmitted the virus.

The discovery, based on laboratory trials, is expected to lead to development of a test to identify potential disease vectors. The lead researchers, M. Cilia and S. Gray, are collaborating on an expanded effort to assess whether biomarker-predictor proteins can be found in other insects. -> M. Cilia, Michelle.Cilia@ars.usda.gov. See: AGRIC. RSCH., 60(4), 12, April 2012. excerpted, with thanks, from an ARS news release; thanks also to D. O'Brien for information.

AN INVASIVE PLANT ERADICATION PROGRAM GONE AWRY A cautionary tale for projects engaged in invasive plant eradication hangs in the experience of an ambitious project undertaken in the Galapagos Archipelago that started with enthusiasm and liberal funding, but concluded with dismal results.

The program, "Control of Invasive Species in the Galapagos Archipelago," funded by the Global Environment Fund and many other to the tune of US million, was a multi- partner, 6-year effort that launched 30 individual projects of which ultimately only 4 were deemed to have been successful. That translated into over 64 percent of the total funding secured for the pilot project being spent on discontinued projects.

M.R. Gardner, et al, reported on the rationale, operations, and conditions that contributed to the less than spectacular results, in their paper, "Eradications and People: Lessons from the Plant Eradication Program in Galapagos," published in the journal Restoration Ecology, under the section subheading, "Setbacks and Surprises," tinyurl.com The program comprised 30 plant eradication projects covering 23 potentially invasive species on four of the Galapagos islands. The failure of 26 projects was predominantly attributed to a lack of support from institutions that did not offer continuity of resources, from land owners who denied permission to conduct eradication, or from being overly ambitious. In some cases refusal was based on active or perceived use of targeted plants for medicinal or ornamental purposes, use of natural fibers or timber, or simply a sentimental attachment.

The authors note that "invoking the precautionary principle as an explanation for the need to remove plant species was only accepted by land owners when they were aware of other infestations of the same species elsewhere in the archipelago. Describing problems the species have caused on other continents did not bear any weight." -> M.R. Gardner, Imperial College, Sillwood Park, Berks. SL5 7PY, UK. Mark.Gardner@fcdarwin.org.ec. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated paper, and from M.R. Gardner; thanks also to EPPO Reporting Services, no. 3, March 2012, for information.


* An IPM scientist familiar with farming in the mid-western USA, where fundamental ecological principles of pest management are increasingly being ignored on large maize and soybean fields, has invoked another meaning for “i” “p” and “m” insurance pest management. -> M. Gray, MEGray@uiuc.edu.

* MEXICO-based CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre) has introduced into BANGLADESH a new wheat variety, Francolin, said to be tolerant of the Ug99 strain of stem-rust fungus; the new variety is reported to produce yields about 10 percent greater than the nation’s commonly grown wheat variety. -> T.P. Tiwari, T.Tiwari@cgiar.org.

* A European study using life cycle assessment methods to assess environmental impacts of four integrated weed management methods in arable crops compared to ‘a standard reference’ produced varied results depending on measured elements.. -> V. Deytieux, Violaine.Deytieux@epoisses.inra.fr.

* Results from a survey indicated adoption of biocontrol by citrus growers in the USA was more likely to be by individuals with larger holdings and a higher education level. -> K.A. Grogan, KellyAGrogan@gmail.com

* Multi-year trials in DENMARK showed that forward angled nozzles applied foliar acting herbicides to grass weeds more effectively than vertically oriented nozzles, thus increasing herbicide efficiency. -> P.K. Jensen, PeterK.Jensen@agrsci.dk.

II. IPM Information Resources > Recently Published Information > Other Published Materials

= RECENTLY PUBLISHED INFORMATION = IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about websites, publications, CD/DVDs, or videos focused on, or related to, crop IPM, crop protection, or invasive species. Please send a review copy of the material to the postal address at end of this file; or, send the URL to: IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. A {$} symbol indicates an item can be purchased, or that there may be charges for handling, postage, or both.


Plant pest identification has a powerful new tool. A collection of over 1,500 websites focused on plant pest insects, pathogens, and weeds comprise ID SOURCE, a "gateway to pest identification," along with links to these "ID Aids" and a powerful search tool. The web-based Aids are thoroughly reviewed, then categorized to assist users in locating their desired target, either by pest name, commodity, or geographic region. The source site, tinyurl.com was assembled by scientists at Colorado State Univ. (USA) and is supported through several U.S. governmental agencies. It was created to enable interested parties to quickly locate and access trustworthy pest identification information. The site's content continues to expand (a search in early April 2012 failed to locate any reference to vertebrate pests of plants, such as rodents) and its mechanics of operation are honed to expedite information access and delivery. Users are invited to rate, contribute, or share ID Aids, as well as consider joining ID SOURCE as members (no cost to join) gain additional benefits such as receipt of an email newsletter. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated web site, and from information provided by T. Walters.


The Lucid Group (Biological Information Technology) at AUSTRALIA's Univ. of Queensland, now based in the Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), recently was involved with making available an online version of the key to "Environmental Weeds of Australia" at tinyurl.com The information had been previously distributed in a DVD version. Additionally, work is going forward to develop identification tools for invasive weeds, insect pests of maize, and bee pollin- ators in the East African region. A head start on the work came about as almost 100 weed species are already covered by the Australian weed key so that score database and fact sheets could be utilized as a starting point and modified as needed for local relevancy. -> G. Norton, QAAFI, Level 6 Hartley Teakle Bldg., Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, AUSTRALIA. GNorton@cbit.uq.edu.au. excerpted, with thanks, from QAAFI information.


The latest issue of The IPM Practitioner, vol. 32, no. 11/12, November/December 2010, contains the 񓟼 Directory of Least-toxic Pest Control Products," said to be a "gateway to more than two thousand useful pest control items." Publisher W. Quarles notes that the Directory is unique as it was compiled by IPM technical experts and includes specific product descriptions. An international listing of many dozen producers and suppliers, with addresses, telephone/fax numbers, and websites (for those that have them) provides an extensive and potentially useful resource. {$} -> BIRC. PO Box 7414, Berkeley, CA 94707, USA. Fax: 1-510-524-1758. Voice: 1-510-524-2567. www.birc.org. birc@igc.org. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated publication.


One of the key regional extension handbooks for pest management in the USA has not only been updated for 2012, but also thoroughly re-designed for ease of use, and is freely available online. The revised Pacific Northwest Plant Disease Management Handbook, prepared by J.W. Pschiedt and C.M. Ocamb, is a ready reference to the control and man- agement tactics for the more economically important plant diseases in the region. As one of three PNW handbooks (also weed management, and insect management) this latest iteration includes sections on hosts and their diseases, diagnosis and testing, an array of relevant articles, safety information, and a list of resources. A series of management recommendations touch on cultural, biological, and chemical means, with the intent that knowledgeable field personnel will use the information to synthesize, balance, and adjust strategies to appropriately fit existing conditions. The senior authors drew on information from scientists and others all across the region, and utilized the expertise of the Oregon State Univ. extension & experiment station communications group. See: pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/. -> J.W. Pschiedt, PscheidJ@science.oregonstate.edu. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated publication.


The entomology extension program at the Univ. of Maryland (USA) announced several recent additions to its ongoing collection of freely downloadable full color educational posters. Both high and low resolution files are available; posters measuring 61 x 71 cm. (24 X 28 in.) can be freely printed. Among the additions are posters for key pest species including Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat). See bottom of the page at: tinyurl.com -> M.K. Malinoski, Univ. of Maryland, HGIC, 12005 Homewood Rd., Ellicott City, MD 21042-1542,USA. MKMal@umd.edu. excerpted, with thanks, from the HGIC site; thanks also to K.K. Day for information.


* The resource Plant Management Network International offers a menu of information services available by subscription such as "Focus on Soybean," an online portal "for grow- ers and crop consultants seeking information" for growing soybean crops including the latest in crop protection concepts. Additionally, a multi-volume set of "Plant Disease Management Reports," and "Arthropod Management Tests" is available along with several other information vehicles. See: tinyurl.com Crop protection-related U.S. Agricultural Research Service articles appearing in recent issues of Agricultural Research, at www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/, in either html or pdf format, include:

"Reducing Insecticide Use by Identifying Disease-Carrying Aphids" - 02 April 2012; "New Technology Sheds Light on Viruses" - 06 April 2012.

III. IPM Medley > Equipment, Products, Processes, Services > Professional Opportunities > Sorting Through the "In" Box


Yellow "sticky" traps are a basic commodity for monitoring a variety of pest species. Traditionally, monitoring traps comprise a yellow colored surface for attraction and a sticky gel to capture and hold specimens. The sticky gel makes these traps difficult to handle. An alternative, a trap employing a hot melt pressure sensitive adhesive (HMPSA) is said to be easier to handle. In direct comparison testing, the HMPSA traps were found to capture "significantly more" specimens compared to a traditional gel trap, possibly due to "a different yellow color and/or lower fluorescence" than the gel trap, but with a clear handling advantage. Other features of HMPSA traps are listed as: 1) allowing for notation (using a pen) on either the glue or non-glue areas; 2) resistant to weather and UV damage; 3) clean specimens can be removed with a drop of Limonene; 4) ability to be hung vertically or horizontally with one or two hangers; 5) allowing for cutting into any shape using regular scissors; 6) fully bio-degradable; 7) eliminate any messy residue on equipment, clothing, or personnel; and, 8) employ a standard grid to facilitate specimen counts. -> AlphaScents, 1089 Willamette Falls Dr., West Linn, OR 97068, USA. www.alphascents.com. Fax: 1-314-271-7297. sales@alphascents.com. Voice: 1-503-342-8611. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated website.

= PROFESSIONAL OPPORTUNITIES = Specialist in Turfgrass and Landscape Pest Management, Honolulu, HI, USA * Collaborate with a wide range of stake holders to plan, formulate, and deliver an integrated, statewide exten- sion program for turfgrass and landscape industries; conduct applied research; seek extramural funding; engage in teaching at both graduate and undergraduate levels. * REQUIRES: PhD in entomology, plant pathology, weed science, or related bio- logical science; minimum of three years experience at lower rank; pest management experience; demonstrated teaching ability; record of scholarly publications; demon- strated success in obtaining extramural funding. * CONTACT: B. Sipes, Plant and Enviromental Protection Sci., Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Sipes@hawaii.edu. Voice: 1-808-956-6737. Position no. 0083320. See: tinyurl.com

Maize Pathologist, and Entomologist, El Batan, MEXICO * The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center seeks qualified candidates for both maize pathologist (associate scientist or scientist) and maize entomol- ologist (post-doctoral fellow) positions. See tinyurl.com for details. Note: Applications must be received by 30 April 2012. -> B.M. Prasanna, B.M.Prasanna@cgiar.org.


// An entomologist writes, "We wish to carry out research on sweet potato in CAMEROON. Our focus will be on the sweet potato weevil and the sweet potato virus. We are looking [for] interested partners to develop the research proposal. If interested, send a note to OkolleJustin@yahoo.com." -> O.N. Justin, Laboratory of Nematology/ Entomology, Centre Africain de Recherches sur Bananiers et Plantains (CARBAP), B.P. 832, Douala, CAMEROON. Voice: 237-745-34786. www.carbapafrica.org

// A troublesome weed, Allium vineale (wild garlic), can contaminate cereal crops, impart a garlic flavor in processed products such as wheat flour, and transfer a garlic odor and flavor to milk produced by dairy stock grazing on A. vineale.

IV. IPM-Related Publications > Books, Other Longer Publications

IPMnet NEWS will gladly mention publications focused on, or related to, crop plant IPM, pest management, crop protection, or invasives. To facilitate review please send a copy of the publication, along with full details, to IPMnet NEWS (address at the end of this file). A {$} symbol indicates an item can be purchased or that there may be charges for handling, postage, or both. many thanks, Ed.


Newer editions traditionally present an increased volume of information and an improved format compared to an earlier version they supersede. In the case of the recently published Integrated Pest Management for Citrus, third edition, not only is there significant practical improvement and expansion over the 1991 edition, the highly readable and visually appealing 2012 publication stands as very likely the most complete, handy, and information-packed global reference available for anyone engaged in any phase of citrus production. The 270-page manual, published by the Univ. of California's Statewide IPM Program, offers: detailed figures to help distinguish between pest organisms; a new section on exotic diseases; an expanded discussion of pesticide use and the potential for problems; plus, up-to-date, field-based and tested monitoring and pest management recommendations. Writer S.H. Dreistadt, backed by a small armada of university faculty (and other) specialists, has captured the essence of IPM in a wide- ranging and inclusive text, supported by over 550 full color photos and numerous black/ white figures. Content addresses a host of pathogens and the diseases they trigger, as well as offering a comprehensive section on pest insects, mites, and snails. Weeds, nematodes, and vertebrate pest species are also discussed. The softbound volume was printed on coated paperstock that enhances the visual quality of both photos and text. This latest addition (Pub. no. 3303) to the notable IPM series from the same source, is available for an extremely reasonable cost, especially when compared to other much less informative, less useful, higher priced publications. {$} -> Comm. Svcs., UC-ANR, 1301 S. 46th St., Bldg.478-MC 3580, Richmond, CA 94804-4600, USA. Fax: 1-510-643-5470. Voice: 1-510-642-2431. anrcatalog@ucdavis.edu. www.anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu. excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated website and publication.


With contributions from a contingent of over 100 international scientist/experts, a massive new volume commissioned and published by the American Phytopathological SocietyVirus and Virus-Like Diseases of Pome and Stone Fruitsrates as one of those references that is so all-encompassing that nearly any aspect of the topic not included is probably inconsequential. Editors A. Hadidi, et al, have brilliantly organized an informa- tion mass into 68 logically accessed chapters offering state-of-the-art information. The 445-page, 2011 work covers biological, molecular, and immunological advances surround- ing causes and strategies for both diagnosis and control of viral (and near viral) diseases affecting pome and stone fruit. In addition to text and tables the hardcover volume pre- sents over 150 vivid color images and addresses important topics including biology, distribution, historic background, detection, taxonomy, and economic impact related to viral threats critical to producing these high value crops. Use of coated paperstock and a large size format add to the value and utility of this notably definitive reference. {$} APS Press, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121, USA. Fax: 1-651-454-0766. Voice: 1-651-454-7250. See: tinyurl.com excerpted, with thanks, from the indicated publication and other sources.

V. IPM-Related Research/Technical Articles > Special Issues > Selected Titles


A 2011 compilation of more than 20 studies for the period 1999-2010 that focuses on biological control of invasive plants in SOUTH AFRICA was published as a special issue of AFRICAN ENTOMOLOGY, vol.19, issue 2, pages 177-549, edited by V.C. Moran, et al.


Phytopathology """"""""""""""" “International Agricultural Research Tackling the Effects of Global and Climatic Changes on Plant Diseases in the Developing World,” Savary, S., et al. * PLANT DISEASE, 95(10), 1204-1216, October 2011.

“Grain Harvesting Strategies to Minimize Grain Quality Losses Due to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat,” Salgado, J.D., et al. * PLANT DISEASE, 95( 11), 1448-1457, November 2011.

“Dynamics of the Root/Soil Pathogens and Antagonists in Organic and Integrated Production of Potato,” Lenc, L., et al. * EURO. JRNL. OF PLANT PATH., 131(4), 603-620, December 2011.

Weed Science / Invasive Plants """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""" “Ecological Studies on Echinochloa crus-galli and the Implications for Weed Manage- ment in Direct-seeded Rice,” Chauhan, B.S., and D.E. Johnson. * CROP PROT., 30(11), 1385-1391, November 2011.

“Cropping Out Weeds,” McCoy, M. * DIGGER, 55(11), 25-29, November 2011.

“Determining Non-invasiveness in Ornamental Plants to Build Green Lists,” Dehnen-Schmutz, K. * JRNL. OF APPLD. ECOL.., 48(6), 1374-1380, December 2011.

Entomology """"""""""""" “Development of Site-specific IPM Against European Grapevine Moth Lobesia botrana (D.& S.) in Vineyards,” Sciarretta, A., et al. * CROP PROT., 30(11), 1469-1477, November 2011.

“Parasitoid Diversity Reduces the Variability in Pest Control Services Across Time on Farms,” Macfadyen, S., et al. * PROC. OF THE ROY. SOC. B, 278, 3387-3394, November 2011.

“Implementing an Integrated Pest Management Program for Coffee Berry Borer in a Specialty Coffee Plantation in Colombia,” Aristizabal, L.F., et al. * JRNL. OF INTEG. PEST MGMT., 3(1), G1-G5, 2012.

Transgenics """"""'''''''''''" “A Semi-quantitative Approach to GMO Risk-benefit Analysis,” Morris, E.J. * TRANSGEN. RSRCH., 20(5), 1055-1071, October 2011.

“Bt Cotton and Sustainability of Pesticide Reductions in India,” Krishna, V.V., and M. Qaim. * AGRIC. SYST., 107, 47-55, March 2012.

General """"""""" “Designing an IPM Research Strategy to Benefit Poor Producers and Consumers in Honduras,” Sparger, J.A., et al. * JRNL. OF INTEG. PEST MGMT., 2(3), A1-A9, 2011.

“Farming with Fewer Pesticides: EU Pesticide Review and Resulting Challenges for UK Agriculture,” Hillocks, R.J. * CROP PROT., 31(1), 85-93, January 2012.

VI. U.S. AID's IPM-Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM-CRSP) - Target: Virus Diseases in Vegetables


A forthcoming international virology workshop/symposium will not only assess the critical status of Research and Management of Insect-transmitted Virus Diseases in Vegetables in the Tropics and Subtropics, it is also anticipated to lead to a plan for formalized future collaboration in plant virology across the targeted region, according to participating scientists.

The event, co-sponsored by the IPM Collaborative Research Support Program (IPM CRSP) and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities, is scheduled for 10-13 July 2012, at Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore, INDIA.

Plant virologists and entomologists from the USA and INDIA will lead discussions of the current status of research, education, and extension relevant to the management of virus diseases. Collaborators and scientists from developing countries partnering with the IPM CRSP (in Asia, Africa, and Latin America) will also participate in the event's symposium phase. Attention will focus on emerging and re-emerging viral diseases, especially those of vegetable crops produced in IPM CRSP host nations.

A primary thrust will be to establish a coordinated program for identifying and man- aging virus diseases affecting cucurbits, eggplant, okra, pepper, and tomato, the program's organizers noted. A draft agenda for the meeting is available at the IPM CRSP website, see tinyurl.com -> E.G. Rajotte, Co-organizer, 508 Ag Sciences, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA 16802, USA. EGRajotte@psu.edu. Voice: 1-814-863-4641. excerpted, with thanks, from IPM CRSP information.

VII. IPMnet CALENDARUpdate > (N)ew or [R]evised Entries for the IPMnet CALENDAR

NOTES: 1. The IPMnet CALENDARUpdate , lists only: (N)ew events not previously cited in IPMnet NEWS; and, [R]evised events presenting new information compared to a previous mention in IPMnet NEWS.

2. The IPMnet CALENDAR, Latest Complete Version, can be requested any time from IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. It is also online at www.pestinfo.org/calendar.php3 courtesy of International Society for Pest Information (ISPI) executive director B. Zelazny. The latter site includes features designed for user convenience. The IPMnet CALENDARUpdate section appears in each IPMnet NEWS issue.

3. IPMnet NEWS welcomes information about future events, or revisions, emailed to IPMnet@science.oregonstate.edu. Information listed in the IPMnet CALENDARUpdate was supplied by, and collected from, various sources; IPMnet greatly appreciates all cooperation. Note: websites listed herein are current as of publication of this issue of IPMnet NEWS, but may be subject to change.

(N)ewly Listed, or [R]evised Entries: as of 15 April 2012


(N) 08-09 May * 3rd SOUTH AUSTRALIAN WEEDS CONFERENCE, Adelaide, SA, AUSTRALIA. Info: www.wmssa.org.au/events.htm. S. Edwards, Edwa0219@hotmail.com.

(N) 05-05 July * 2nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON NEMATODES AS ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS, Ghent, BELGIUM. Info: tinyurl.com Russell@aab.org.uk.


26-30 September * 5th CROATIAN CONGRESS OF MICROBIOLOGY (with international participation), Primosten, CROATIA. Info: congress2012@hmd-cms.hr. www.hmd-cms.hr/congress2012.

(N) 16-19 October * PLANT RESISTANCE SUSTAINABILITY 2012 INTERNA- TIONAL CONFERENCE, La Colle sur Loup, FRANCE. Info: tinyurl.com contactPRS2012@sophia.inra.fr.

(N) 01-02 November * SOCIETE d'ENTOMOLOGIE DU QUEBEC REUNION ANNUELLE, Boucherville, QUE, CANADA. Info: J.-E. Maisonhaute, secretariat@seq.qc.ca. tinyurl.com

04-10 November * 3rd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BACTERIAL PLANT DISEASES, Agadir, MOROCCO. Info: www.iavcha.ac.ma/biocontrol2012. biocontrol2012@iavcha.ac.ma.

(N) 27-28 November * CROP PROTECTION IN SOUTHERN BRITAIN 2012, Peterborough, UK. Info: tinyurl.com Carol@aab.org.uk.


[R] 19-21 March * New information * PURE 1st CONGRESS, “Pesticide Use- and-Risk Reduction for Future IPM in Europe,” Riva del Garda, ITALY. Info: www.futureIPM.eu. info@futureipm.eu.


2014 and 2015

No (N)ew or [R]evised events to report (in this listing) for these years.

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