Bionomics of Codling Moth
In Europe, northern limits of the codling moth extends through Scotland and Scandinavia (Shel’Deshova 1967), where it reaches latitude 640 °N, and on through Southern Karelia, Kirov and Perm, which correspond closely to the limits of apple cultivation. There has been far more distribution of this insect in Asia, mainly within the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The codling moth has even followed the apple into Siberia, and does serious damage in most localities (Shvetsova 1949). In the East, however, outside the CIS, the codling moth is found only in Chekiang and Sinkiang Uighur (China) (Anonymous 1976). It is absent elsewhere in China, and is an object of both internal and external quarantine. The southern distribution limit of the codling moth extends through the mountainous area of North Africa [ including Tunisia (Anonymous 1976), Morocco (Bleton 1938, Anonymous 1976), Egypt (El-Gamil et al. 1977, Anonymous 1976), and North Algeria (Anonymous 1976)], across Israel, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, ending towards 300 °N. In Pakistan, this pest came through Afghanistan, where it spread from Iran and the Central Asian states. It has also been observed in the mountains of northern India (in the state of Himachal Pradesh). In South Asia (Indo-Pakistan subcontinent), the infestation is confined to areas between 4,500 and 9,000 feet above sea level and the pest thrives best between 5,000 and 7,000 feet (Janjua et al. 1958, Sharma and Bhalla 1964).
In the USA, according to Slingerland (1898), it
was probably introduced from Europe in packages containing infested apples
and pears. It was first observed in New Egland in 1750, in Iowa in 1860,
and in Washington (state) in 1880 (Johansen 1985). In Canada, it inhabits
southern regions from New Brunswick to Vancouver Island, approximately
to latitude 50 °N (Shel’Deshova
1967) Shel’Deshova 1967). In Mexico, this insect is distributed only
in the north-central areas (Sifuentes 1981). The codling moth has
also become firmly acclimatized in the southern hemisphere.
It has spread in Australia and is destructive in the southeast of the continent,
in Tasmania (Mathew and Kitching 1984), and in New Zealand (Croft and Penman
1989). It once occurred in western Australia, but was eradicated
in 1958 (Barnes 1991). In Africa, it is confined to South Africa as far
as Pretoria and Orange River (Nel 1984). In South America, it occurs in
Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Columbia, Chile, and Peru.